We report an investigation for 16 bacteria and viruses among 184 children hospitalized with pneumonia in Salvador, Brazil. Etiology was established in 144 (78%) cases. Viral, bacterial, and mixed infections were found in 110 (60%), 77 (42%), and 52 (28%) patients, respectively. Rhinovirus (21%) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (21%) were the most common pathogens. Our results demonstrate the importance of viral and pneumococcal infections among those patients.
"During the 2004- 2005 influenza season, the estimated influenza-related hospitalization rate was 8.6/10,000 children aged less than 5 years (Grijalva, Weinberg et al. 2007). The burden of influenza is unknown in most developing countries (Viboud, Alonso et al. 2006), but some data from the tropics and subtropics demonstrates incidence and hospitalization rates for influenza that exceed those reported for temperate regions (Chiu, Lau et al. 2002; Nascimento-Carvalho, Ribeiro et al. 2008; Zaman, Roy et al. 2008). The seasonality of influenza virus in the tropics is variable, with some studies demonstrating year round disease (Tsai, Kuo et al. 2001; Straliotto, Siqueira et al. 2002; Viboud, Alonso et al. 2006) and some demonstrating one or two clear peaks (de Arruda, Hayden et al. 1991; Chew, Doraisingham et al. 1998; Alonso, Viboud et al. 2007; Gordon, Ortega et al. 2009). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: : Limited data are available in Honduras that describe the etiology and seasonality of respiratory infections, especially in rural outpatient settings. Better data may lead to improved therapeutic and preventive strategies. The goal of our study was to determine the viral etiology and seasonality of acute respiratory infections in a rural Honduran population of children.
: Prospective clinic surveillance was conducted to identify children < 5 years of age presenting with respiratory symptoms of < 5 days duration. We obtained data on age, sex, medical history, breastfeeding history, symptoms, risk factors, household setting, temperature, respiratory rate and chest examination findings. To assess the association between specific viruses and weather, regional meteorological data were collected. Nasopharyngeal samples were tested for 16 respiratory viruses using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction panel.
: From February 2010 through June 2011, 345 children < 5 years of age were enrolled; 17%, 23%, 30% and 31% were <6, 6-11, 12-23 and 24-60 months old, respectively. Including all clinics in the region, 44.5% of patients < 5 years of age with documented respiratory diagnoses were enrolled. At least 1 virus was identified in 75.4% children, of which 7.5% were coinfections; 13.3% were positive for parainfluenza, 11.9% for influenza, 8.1% for human metapneumovirus and 7.5% for respiratory syncytial virus. Rainfall correlated with parainfluenza (P < 0.0001), influenza (P < 0.0001), human metapneumovirus (P = 0.0182) and respiratory syncytial virus (P < 0.0001).
: These results suggest that the spectrum of viruses in ill, rural, Honduran children is similar to that in North and Central America, although the seasonality is typical of some tropical regions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The term atypical pneumonia was originally used to describe an unusual presentation of pneumonia. It is now more widely used in reference to either pneumonia caused by a relatively common group of pathogens, or to a distinct clinical syndrome the existence of which is difficult to demonstrate. As such, the use of atypical pneumonia is often inaccurate, potentially confusing, and of dubious scientific merit. We need to return to the original meaning of atypical pneumonia and restrict its use to describe pneumonia that is truly unusual in clinical presentation, epidemiology, or both.
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