N-Methylnicotinamide Is an Endogenous Probe for Evaluation of Drug–Drug Interactions Involving Multidrug and Toxin Extrusions (MATE1 and MATE2-K)

Laboratory of Molecular Pharmacokinetics, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
Clinical Pharmacology &#38 Therapeutics (Impact Factor: 7.9). 10/2012; 92(5):635-41. DOI: 10.1038/clpt.2012.138
Source: PubMed


Multidrug and toxin extrusion 1 (MATE1) and MATE2-K are H(+)/organic cation exchangers mediating the efflux of cationic drugs into the urine. N-methylnicotinamide (NMN) was found to be an endogenous substrate of MATE1 (Michaelis constant (K(m)) 301 ± 18 µmol/l) and MATE2-K (K(m) 422 ± 63 µmol/l) as well as a basolateral influx transporter, organic cation transporter 2 (K(m) 318 ± 29 µmol/l). A potent MATE inhibitor, pyrimethamine, competitively inhibited the uptake by MATE1 and MATE2-K with inhibition constant (K(i)) values of 83 ± 15 and 56 ± 11 nmol/l, respectively. The uptake of NMN by human kidney brush border membrane vesicles with a H(+) gradient was saturable (K(m) 360 ± 55 µmol/l) and completely inhibited by pyrimethamine. The renal clearance of endogenous NMN was 403 ± 61 in healthy male subjects, and it was significantly decreased to 119 ± 16 ml/min/kg by an oral dose of pyrimethamine (50 mg). These results support the utility of NMN as an endogenous in vivo probe for investigating MATE1 and MATE2-K in humans.

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