Article

The neural correlates of emotion-based cognitive control in adults with early childhood behavioral inhibition

Section of Developmental and Affective Neuroscience, National Institute of Mental Health, United States. Electronic address: .
Biological psychology (Impact Factor: 3.47). 10/2012; 92(2). DOI: 10.1016/j.biopsycho.2012.09.008
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The present study is the first to assess whether the neural correlates of cognitive control processes differ in adults with and without a behaviorally inhibited temperament during early childhood. Adults with and without childhood behavioral inhibition completed an emotional conflict task while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning. While no group differences in behavior were observed, adults with childhood behavioral inhibition, relative to adults without childhood behavioral inhibition, exhibited greater dorsomedial prefrontal cortex activity during conflict detection and greater putamen activity during conflict adaptation. Lifetime psychopathology predicted behavioral, but not brain-related, differences in conflict adaptation. These data suggest that the brain regions underlying cognitive control processes are differentially influenced by childhood behavioral inhibition, and may be differently related to psychopathology.

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Available from: Johanna M Jarcho, Sep 03, 2015
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    • "Both BI and social anxiety disorder have been characterized by differential response tendencies in affective neural circuits involving prefrontal cortex (PFC), amygdala, and striatum, consistent with the idea that both conditions involve difficulty regulating emotional responses to social stimuli. For example, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) research has shown that childhood BI is associated with dysregulated engagement of regions within PFC (Jarcho et al. 2013), amygdala (Perez- Edgar et al. 2007; Schwartz et al. 2003), and striatum (Bar- Haim et al. 2009; Guyer et al. 2006, 2014; Perez-Edgar et al. 2014). Likewise, harsh parenting, low maternal warmth, and maternal negative affect measured in other at-risk groups have all been associated with atypical structure (e.g., larger regional volumes) and functional engagement (e.g., increased activation ) in these same brain regions (Casement et al. 2014; Tan et al. 2014; Taylor et al. 2006; Whittle et al. 2009; Yap et al. 2008). "
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    ABSTRACT: Behavioral inhibition (BI) is a temperament characterized by social reticence and withdrawal from unfamiliar or novel contexts and conveys risk for social anxiety disorder. Developmental outcomes associated with this temperament can be influenced by children’s caregiving context. The convergence of a child’s temperamental disposition and rearing environment is ultimately expressed at both the behavioral and neural levels in emotional and cognitive response patterns to social challenges. The present study used functional neuroimaging to assess the moderating effects of different parenting styles on neural response to peer rejection in two groups of adolescents characterized by their early childhood temperament (M age = 17.89 years, N = 39, 17 males, 22 females; 18 with BI; 21 without BI). The moderating effects of authoritarian and authoritative parenting styles were examined in three brain regions linked with social anxiety: ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC), striatum, and amygdala. In youth characterized with BI in childhood, but not in those without BI, diminished responses to peer rejection in vlPFC were associated with higher levels of authoritarian parenting. In contrast, all youth showed decreased caudate response to peer rejection at higher levels of authoritative parenting. These findings indicate that BI in early life relates to greater neurobiological sensitivity to variance in parenting styles, particularly harsh parenting, in late adolescence. These results are discussed in relation to biopsychosocial models of development.
    Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 01/2015; 43(5). DOI:10.1007/s10802-015-9973-2 · 3.09 Impact Factor
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    • "As such, our understanding of the mechanisms required to recruit emotional control in response to emotional conflict may be distorted and misunderstood by the inclusion of stimuli that require multiple cognitive processes (e.g., stimuli that require the processing of both facial and lexical information). For example, several studies of emotional control processes utilize an emotional face-word Stroop task where emotional words are overlaid on pictures of emotional faces and participants are asked to identify the affect expressed on the face [9,11-16]. Conflict is generated when the lexical properties of an emotional word (cognitive) conflicts with the affect depicted by the face (emotional). For example, a happy face overlaid with the word “fear”; this paradigm is also sometimes referred to as the emotional face-Stroop paradigm. "
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    ABSTRACT: The preponderance of research on trial-by-trial recruitment of affective control (e.g., conflict adaptation) relies on stimuli wherein lexical word information conflicts with facial affective stimulus properties (e.g., the face-Stroop paradigm where an emotional word is overlaid on a facial expression). Several studies, however, indicate different neural time course and properties for processing of affective lexical stimuli versus affective facial stimuli. The current investigation used a novel task to examine control processes implemented following conflicting emotional stimuli with conflict-inducing affective face stimuli in the absence of affective words. Forty-one individuals completed a task wherein the affective-valence of the eyes and mouth were either congruent (happy eyes, happy mouth) or incongruent (happy eyes, angry mouth) while high-density event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. There was a significant congruency effect and significant conflict adaptation effects for error rates. Although response times (RTs) showed a significant congruency effect, the effect of previous-trial congruency on current-trial RTs was only present for current congruent trials. Temporospatial principal components analysis showed a P3-like ERP source localized using FieldTrip software to the medial cingulate gyrus that was smaller on incongruent than congruent trials and was significantly influenced by the recruitment of control processes following previous-trial emotional conflict (i.e., there was significant conflict adaptation in the ERPs). Results show that a face-only paradigm may be sufficient to elicit emotional conflict and suggest a system for rapidly detecting conflicting emotional stimuli and subsequently adjusting control resources, similar to cognitive conflict detection processes, when using conflicting facial expressions without words.
    PLoS ONE 09/2013; 8(9):e75776. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0075776 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "Relative to healthy adolescents, adolescents with SAD [42-46], or at risk of developing SAD [14,47-51], tend to show heightened amygdala sensitivity and perterbations in striatum and circuits encompassing medial (mPFC) and ventral lateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC), insula, and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Despite the dynamic nature of the cognitive biases that engender symptoms in SAD, many fMRI studies used relatively simple, static stimuli to investigate these perturbations. "
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    ABSTRACT: Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) is a common and debilitating condition that typically manifests in adolescence. Here we describe cognitive factors engaged by brain-imaging tasks, which model the peer-based social interactions that evoke symptoms of SAD. We then present preliminary results from the Virtual School paradigm, a novel peer-based social interaction task. This paradigm is designed to investigate the neural mechanisms mediating individual differences in social response flexibility and in participants' responses to uncertainty in social contexts. We discuss the utility of this new paradigm for research on brain function and developmental psychopathology.
    Biology of Mood and Anxiety Disorders 07/2013; 3(1):14. DOI:10.1186/2045-5380-3-14
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