Structural insights into activation of antiviral NK cell responses.
ABSTRACT Natural killer (NK) cells are key components of innate immune responses, providing surveillance against cells undergoing tumorigenesis or infection, by viruses or internal pathogens. NK cells can directly eliminate compromised cells and regulate downstream responses of the innate and acquired immune systems through the release of immune modulators (cytokines, interferons). The importance of the role NK cells play in immune defense was demonstrated originally in herpes viral infections, usually mild or localized, which become severe and life threatening in NK-deficient patients . NK cell effector functions are governed by balancing opposing signals from a diverse array of activating and inhibitory receptors. Many NK receptors occur in paired activating and inhibitory isoforms and recognize major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I proteins with varying degrees of peptide specificity. Structural studies have made considerable inroads into understanding the molecular mechanisms employed to broadly recognize multiple MHC ligands or specific pathogen-associated antigens and the strategies employed by viruses to thwart these defenses. Although many details of NK development, signaling, and integration remain mysterious, it is clear that NK receptors are key components of a system exquisitely tuned to sense any dysregulation in MHC class I expression, or the expression of certain viral antigens, resulting in the elimination of affected cells.
SourceAvailable from: Sandra L López-Vergès[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The innate immune response, in addition to the B- and T-cell response, plays a role in protection against dengue virus (DENV) infection and the degree of disease severity. Early activation of natural killer (NK) cells and type-I interferon-dependent immunity may be important in limiting viral replication during the early stages of DENV infection and thus reducing subsequent pathogenesis. NK cells may also produce cytokines that reduce inflammation and tissue injury. On the other hand, NK cells are also capable of inducing liver injury at early-time points of DENV infection. In vitro, NK cells can kill antibody-coated DENV-infected cells through antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. In addition, NK cells may directly recognize DENV-infected cells through their activating receptors, although the increase in HLA class I expression may allow infected cells to escape the NK response. Recently, genome-wide association studies have shown an association between MICB and MICA, which encode ligands of the activating NK receptor NKG2D, and dengue disease outcome. This review focuses on recognition of DENV-infected cells by NK cells and on the regulation of expression of NK cell ligands by DENV.Frontiers in Immunology 05/2014; 5:192. DOI:10.3389/fimmu.2014.00192
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ABSTRACT: Immune evasion strategies are important for the onset and the maintenance of viral infections. Many viruses have evolved mechanisms to counteract or suppress the host immune response. We have previously characterized two syncytial (syn) variants of Herpes simplex 1 (HSV-1) strain F, syn14-1 and syn17-2, obtained by selective pressure with a natural carrageenan. These variants showed a differential pathology in vaginal and respiratory mucosa infection in comparison with parental strain. In this paper we evaluated the modulation of immune response in respiratory mucosa by these HSV-1 variants. We observed altered levels of Tumor Necrosis Factor-α and Interleukin-6 in lungs of animals infected with the syn14-1 and syn17-2 variants compared with the parental strain. Also, we detected differences in the recruitment of immune cells to the lung in syn variants infected mice. Both variants exhibit one point mutation in the sequence of the gene of glycoprotein D detected in the ectodomain of syn14-1 and the cytoplasmic tail of syn17-2. Results obtained in the present study contribute to the characterization of HSV-1 syn variants and the participation of the cellular inflammatory response in viral pathogenesis.Microbial Pathogenesis 06/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.micpath.2014.04.004 · 2.00 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The killer cell Ig-like receptor 3DL1 (KIR3DL1) inhibits activation of NK cells upon interaction with HLA class I molecules such as HLA-B*57:01, which contains the Bw4 epitope spanning residues 77-83 (e.g., NLRIALR), and not with HLA allomorphs that possess the Bw6 motif (e.g., HLA-B*08:01), which differ at residues 77, 80, 81, 82, and 83. Although Bw4 residues Ile(80) and Arg(83) directly interact with KIR3DL1*001, their precise role in determining KIR3DL1-HLA-Bw4 specificity remains unclear. Recognition of HLA-B*57:01 by either KIR3DL1(+) NK cells or the NK cell line YTS transfected with KIR3DL1*001 was impaired by mutation of residues 80 and 83 of HLA-B*57:01 to the corresponding amino acids within the Bw6 motif. Conversely, the simultaneous introduction of three Bw4 residues at positions 80, 82, and 83 into HLA-B*08:01 conferred an interaction with KIR3DL1*001. Structural analysis of HLA-B*57:01, HLA-B*08:01, and mutants of each bearing substitutions at positions 80 and 83 revealed that Ile(80) and Arg(83) within the Bw4 motif constrain the conformation of Glu(76), primarily through a salt bridge between Arg(83) and Glu(76). This salt bridge was absent in HLA-Bw6 molecules as well as position 83 mutants of HLA-B*57:01. Mutation of the Bw4 residue Ile(80) also disrupted this salt bridge, providing further insight into the role that position 80 plays in mediating KIR3DL1 recognition. Thus, the strict conformation of HLA-Bw4 allotypes, held in place by the Glu(76)-Arg(83) interaction, facilitates KIR3DL1 binding, whereas Bw6 allotypes present a platform on the α1 helix that is less permissive for KIR3DL1 binding. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.