Two vaccines protect against human papillomaviruses (HPV) 16 and 18, which cause 70% of cervical cancer and 50% of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2/3 and adenocarcinoma in situ (CIN2+). Monitoring HPV types in CIN2+ may be used to assess HPV vaccine impact.
As part of a multisite vaccine impact monitoring project (HPV-IMPACT), biopsy specimens used to diagnose CIN2+ were obtained for HPV DNA typing for women aged 18-39 years.
Among 4,121 CIN2+ cases reported during 2008-2009 in 18- to 39-year-old women 3058 (74.2%) were tested; 96% were HPV DNA positive. HPV 16 was most common (49.1%), followed by HPV 31 (10.4%) and HPV 52 (9.7%). HPV 18 prevalence was 5.5% overall. Proportion of CIN2+ cases associated with HPV 16/18 was highest (56.3%) in 25- to 29-year-old women. HPV 16/18-associated lesions were less common in non-Hispanic blacks (41.9%) and Hispanics (46.3%) compared with non-Hispanic whites (59.1%) (P < .0001); the difference remained significant when adjusted for covariates. Compared to non-Hispanic whites, HPV 35 and 58 were significantly more common in non-Hispanic blacks (14.5% vs 4.2%; 12.3% vs 3.4%) and HPV 45 was higher in Hispanics (3.7% vs 1.5%).
Age and racial/ethnic differences in HPV type distribution may have implications for vaccine impact and should be considered in monitoring trends.
"However, CIN2/3 is the point of treatment in the USA, and the two CIN categories are sometimes difficult to distinguish. Two prior studies with a much larger sample size of CIN2/3 cases reported similar racial differences [7, 10]. Despite these limitations, our findings support the idea that there may be race/ethnic differences in the distribution of HPV subtypes, with implications for both screening and progression to ICC. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose
For poorly understood reasons, invasive cervical cancer (ICC) incidence and mortality rates are higher in women of African descent. Oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes distribution may vary between European American (EA) and African-American (AA) women and may contribute to differences in ICC incidence. The current study aimed at disentangling differences in HPV distribution among AA and EA women.
Five-hundred and seventy-two women were enrolled at the time of colposcopic evaluation following an abnormal liquid-based cytology screen. HPV infections were detected using HPV linear array, and chi-squared tests and linear regression models were used to compare HPV genotypes across racial/ethnic groups by CIN status.
Of the 572 participants, 494 (86 %) had detectable HPV; 245 (43 %) had no CIN lesion, 239 (42 %) had CIN1, and 88 (15 %) had CIN2/3. Seventy-three percent of all women were infected with multiple HPV genotypes. After adjusting for race, age, parity, income, oral contraception use, and current smoking, AAs were two times less likely to harbor HPV 16/18 (OR 0.48, 95 % CI 0.21–0.94, p = 0.03) when all women were considered. This association remained unchanged when only women with CIN2/3 lesions were examined (OR 0.22, 95 % CI 0.05–0.95, p = 0.04). The most frequent high-risk HPV genotypes detected among EAs were 16, 18, 56, 39, and 66, while HPV genotypes 33, 35, 45, 58, and 68 were the most frequent ones detected in AAs.
Our data suggest that while HPV 16/18 are the most common genotypes among EA women with CIN, AAs may harbor different genotypes.
Cancer Causes and Control 06/2014; 25(8). DOI:10.1007/s10552-014-0406-2 · 2.74 Impact Factor
"By contrast, HPV 18/45 are underrepresented in HPV-positive women with precancerous cervical lesions compared to the high contribution in ICC, where these types are consistently the second and third most common types in most of the world regions [6,7,17]. Recent published data in high grade cervical lesions are in agreement with the reported results from Guan et al. meta-analysis, and suggests the representativeness of the study data . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Information on human papillomavirus (HPV) type distribution is necessary to evaluate the potential impact of current and future HPV vaccines. We estimated the relative contribution (RC) to invasive cervical cancer (ICC) and precancerous cervical lesions of the nine HPV types (HPV 6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58) included in an HPV vaccine currently under development.
Estimations on ICC were based on an international study of 8,977 HPV positive cases and estimations on precancerous cervical lesions were extracted from a published meta-analysis including 115,789 HPV positive women. Globocan 2008 and 2010 World Population Prospects were used to estimate current and future projections of new ICC cases.
RC of the 9 HPV types in ICC was 89.4%, with 18.5% of cases positive for HPV 31/33/45/52/58. Regional variations were observed. RCs varied by histology, ranging between 89.1% in squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) and 95.5% in adenocarcinomas (ADC). HPV 16/18/45 were detected in 94.2% of ADC. RC of the 9 types altogether decreased with age (trend test p < 0.0001), driven by the decrease in older ages of HPV 16/18/45. In contrast, the RC of HPV 31/33/52/58 increased with age. Due to population growth alone, projected estimates of ICC cases attributable to the 9 types are expected to rise from 493,770 new cases in 2012 to 560,887 new cases in 2025.
The RCs of individual high risk HPV types varied by cytological and histological grades of HPV-positive precancerous cervical lesions, and there was an under representation of HPV 18 and 45 compared to ICC.
The addition of HPV 31/33/45/52/58 to HPV types included in current vaccines could prevent almost 90% of ICC cases worldwide. If the nine-valent vaccine achieves the same degree of efficacy than previous vaccines, world incidence rates could be substantially reduced.
Infectious Agents and Cancer 12/2012; 7(1):38. DOI:10.1186/1750-9378-7-38 · 2.36 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Current vaccines protect against 2 human papillomavirus (HPV) types, HPV 16 and 18, which are associated with 70% of cervical cancers and 50% of high-grade cervical lesions. HPV type distribution was examined among women with high-grade lesions by individual and area-based measures of race, ethnicity, and poverty.
This analysis included 832 women aged 18 to 39 years reported to a surveillance registry in Connecticut during 2008 to 2010. Diagnostic specimens were obtained for HPV DNA testing. Individual measures were obtained from surveillance reports, medical records, and patient interviews. Cases were geocoded to census tracts and linked to area-based measures of race, ethnicity, and poverty. Statistical analysis included use of generalized estimating equations.
Overall, 44.8% of women had HPV 16/18. In a multivariate model controlled for confounding by age and diagnosis grade, black race (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] = 0.54, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.34-0.88), Hispanic ethnicity (aPR = 0.59, 95% CI = 0.40-0.88), and higher area-based poverty (aPR = 0.59, 95% CI = 0.40-0.87) were associated with a lower likelihood of HPV 16/18 positivity. Black and Hispanic women were less likely to have HPV 16/18 than white women across all levels of area-based measures.
Black race, Hispanic ethnicity, and higher area-based poverty are salient predictors of lower HPV 16/18 positivity among women with high-grade cervical lesions. These data suggest that HPV vaccines might have lower impact among black and Hispanic women and those living in high poverty areas. These findings have implications for vaccine impact monitoring, vaccination programs, and new vaccine development.
Cancer 05/2013; 119(16). DOI:10.1002/cncr.28038 · 4.89 Impact Factor
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