Dairy Intake and Related Self-Regulation Improved in College Students Using Online Nutrition Education
ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Dairy intake by college students is markedly lower than recommendations. Interventions to improve dairy intake based on Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) have potential to successfully change behavior by improving mediators that influence dietary choices. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to use SCT to improve social support, self-efficacy, outcome expectations, self-regulation, and behavior related to dairy intake in college students. DESIGN: We conducted a randomized nutrition education intervention. PARTICIPANTS/SETTING: Participants included 211 college students (mean age 20.2±0.1 years; 63% women and 37% men) recruited from a university campus. Participants in the intervention group (n=107) and comparison group (n=104) received an 8-week dairy intake or stress management intervention, respectively, via electronic mail. Data collection included dairy intake from 7-day food records and SCT variables from questionnaires administered during January 2008 and April 2008. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Changes in dairy intake and SCT variables (ie, social support, self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and self-regulation). STATISTICAL ANALYSES PERFORMED: Multivariate analysis of covariance, with age and sex as covariates (P<0.05). RESULTS: Ninety-one percent of participants (n=97 intervention, n=94 comparison) provided data; complete data were analyzed for 85% of participants (n=90 intervention, n=89 comparison). Participants in the intervention group reported higher intake of total dairy foods (P=0.012) and improved use of self-regulation strategies for consuming three servings per day of total dairy (P=0.000) and low-fat dairy foods (P=0.002) following the intervention. CONCLUSIONS: Nutrition education via electronic mail based on an SCT model improved total dairy intake and self-regulation. Participants reported increased dairy intake and better use of self-regulation strategies. Future interventions should focus on benefits of consuming low-fat vs higher-fat dairy foods.
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether elective course work based nutrition education in university can change students' body composition and eating habits associated with obesity and its related health risk in first-year college students. A total of 38 students agreed and participated in the study. Participants received a series of lecture about obesity, weight management, and concepts of nutrition and food choices for 13 weeks. The students' BMI and body composition, including body fat and muscle contents, were measured. A 24-hour diet recall for two days was performed for food intake analysis, and the questionnaires for dietary behaviors were collected at the beginning and the end of the study. Paired t-test and χ(2)-test were used for statistical analysis. Data showed that most of the anthropometric parameters including body weight were not significantly changed at the end of the coursework. Interestingly, skeletal muscle contents in both obese (BMI ≥ 23) and lean (18.5 ≤ BMI ≤ 22.9) subjects were significantly increased. Total energy intake was decreased in total subjects after the study. Also, general nutrition behavior of the subjects including enough hydration and utilization of nutrition knowledge were significantly improved during the study period. The total number of responses to doing aerobic exercise was slightly increased after the study, but the average frequency of exercise in each individual was not changed. These results suggest that class-work based nutrition education on a regular basis could be a time and cost effective method for improving body composition and nutritional behavior in general college students.07/2013; 2(2):125-34. DOI:10.7762/cnr.2013.2.2.125
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ABSTRACT: We hypothesized that Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) constructs (behavioral belief, attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, knowledge and behavioral intention) regarding preventive behaviors for obesity and Type 2 diabetes will change favorably after completing the web-based intervention, HOT (Healthy Outcome for Teens) project, grounded in the TPB; and that passive online learning (POL) group will improve more than the active online learning (AOL) group. The secondary hypothesis was to determine to what extent constructs of the TPB predict intentions. 216 adolescents were recruited, 127 randomly allocated to the treatment group (AOL) and 89 to the control group (POL). The subjects completed a TPB questionnaire pre and post intervention. Both POL and AOL groups showed significant improvements from pretest to posttest survey. However, the results indicated no significant difference between POL and AOL for all constructs except behavioral belief. Correlational analysis indicated that all TPB constructs were significantly correlated with intentions for pretest and posttest for both groups. Attitude and behavioral control showed strongest correlations. Regression analysis indicated that TPB constructs were predictive of intentions and the predictive power improved post intervention. Behavioral control consistently predicted intentions for all categories and was the strongest predictor for pretest scores. For posttest scores, knowledge and attitude were the strongest predictors for POL and AOL groups respectively. Thus, HOT project improved knowledge and the TPB constructs scores for targeted behaviors, healthy eating and physical activity, for prevention of obesity and Type 2 diabetes.Appetite 10/2013; 72. DOI:10.1016/j.appet.2013.09.024 · 2.69 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: More than one-half of young adults aged 18-24 y have at least 1 coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factor and nearly one-quarter have advanced atherosclerotic lesions. The extent of atherosclerosis is directly correlated with the number of risk factors. Unhealthy dietary choices made by this age group contribute to weight gain and dyslipidemia. Risk factor profiles in young adulthood strongly predict long-term CHD risk. Early detection is critical to identify individuals at risk and to promote lifestyle changes before disease progression occurs. Despite the presence of risk factors and pathological changes, risk assessment and disease prevention efforts are lacking in this age group. Most young adults are not screened and are unaware of their risk. This review provides pathological evidence along with current risk factor prevalence data to demonstrate the need for early detection. Eighty percent of heart disease is preventable through diet and lifestyle, and young adults are ideal targets for prevention efforts because they are in the process of establishing lifestyle habits, which track forward into adulthood. This review aims to establish the need for increased screening, risk assessment, education, and management in young adults. These essential screening efforts should include the assessment of all CHD risk factors and lifestyle habits (diet, exercise, and smoking), blood pressure, glucose, and body mass index in addition to the traditional lipid panel for effective long-term risk reduction.Advances in Nutrition 03/2014; 5(2):177-87. DOI:10.3945/an.113.005447 · 4.90 Impact Factor