The association between lower birth weight and comorbid generalised anxiety and major depressive disorder
ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: Studies testing the association between birth weight and depression or anxiety have found inconsistent results and there has been a lack of research on the possible relationship between birth weight and comorbid anxiety and depression. We tested for an association between lower birth weight and major depression, generalised anxiety and comorbid generalised anxiety and major depression. METHOD: Data was taken from 2113 mothers and their offspring participating in the Mater University Study of Pregnancy (MUSP) birth cohort. Generalised anxiety, major depression and comorbid generalised anxiety and major depression at 21 years were tested for associations with birth weight using multinomial logistic regression. RESULTS: Lower birth weight was found to predict comorbid generalised anxiety and major depression, but did not predict either generalised anxiety or major depression. LIMITATIONS: We were unable to specify comorbidity by the primary disorder, or by the severity or recurrence of the depression. CONCLUSION: Previous associations found between birth weight and mental health may reflect a specific link between lower birth weight and comorbid generalised anxiety and major depressive disorders. As neither disorder individually was associated with lower birth weight, this may suggest that this developmental origin represents a unique risk pathway to comorbidity not shared with either discrete disorder.
- SourceAvailable from: Jackob M. Najman
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- "Infant illness susceptibility was constructed as a single latent variable capturing the 'co-occurrence' of two indicator variables reported by mothers at infant age 6 months: (1) how many times medical attention had been sought for the infant (0/1/2/3–4/5+), and (2) four questions regarding the frequency (never/rarely/monthly/weekly/often) of health problems possibly resulting from infection (vomiting, diarrhoea/constipation, skin rashes, cold/cough/runny nose), which were summed. Additional prenatal and perinatal risk factors which prior work indicate may play a causal role in the main hypothesis were ascertained at birth, including Apgar score (b 7 at 1 minute), forced induction of labour , pre-eclampsia, and birth weight z-score adjusted for gestational age and gender (Betts et al., 2013), and if the baby required " specialist medical care " after delivery (did not happen/ minor problem/ moderate problem/ major problem). In addition, at the first clinic visit pregnant mothers were asked how many cigarettes they had smoked in the last week (none/1–19/20+). "
ABSTRACT: Background Existing evidence has established that maternal infection during pregnancy and illness during early life are associated with later schizophrenia. No research has examined how the combination of these prenatal and postnatal exposures is linked to an increased risk to later schizophrenia and psychotic disorders. Methods Participants from the Mater University Study of Pregnancy (MUSP), an Australian based, pre-birth cohort study were examined for lifetime DSM-IV positive psychotic experiences at 21 years by a semi-structured interview. Structural equation modelling was used to derive a general factor of psychotic experiences at age 21. Next, we undertook a number of separate analyses to investigate how prenatal infections and infant illness susceptibility are related to positive psychotic experiences in early adulthood, allowing for tests of moderation and mediation between the two risk factors. Results After adjustment for important confounders, infant illness susceptibility was found to play a mediating role in the association between prenatal vaginal infection and later psychotic experiences. Whereby, infant illness susceptibility showed a direct association with psychotic experiences, while prenatal vaginal infection indirectly predicted psychotic experiences via infant illness susceptibility. Conclusion Our findings suggest that illness susceptibility in early infancy may be central to the relationship between prenatal vaginal infection and later psychotic experiences. Further research is needed to establish the mechanisms that link these prenatal and postnatal exposures with psychotic illness in later life.Schizophrenia Research 07/2014; 156(2-3). DOI:10.1016/j.schres.2014.04.013 · 3.92 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Studies have shown a link between maternal-prenatal mental health and offspring behavior problems. In this paper, we derived longitudinal trajectories of maternal depressive, anxious, and stress symptoms over early life to predict offspring behavior in adolescence. Participants included 3,925 mother-offspring pairs from the Mater University Study of Pregnancy (MUSP), an Australian-based, prebirth cohort study. Latent class growth analysis with parallel processes was used to identify trajectories of maternal depressive, anxious, and stress symptoms over four measurement periods between the mothers' first clinic visit and 5 years postpregnancy. The estimates from the maternal trajectories were used to fit multivariate logistic regression models and predict internalizing and externalizing behavior at age 14. We adjusted for a wide range of factors, including a number of prenatal confounders, concurrent maternal depressive and anxious symptoms, father's history of mental problems, and maternal life events relationship quality and contact with the new born. Seven maternal trajectories were identified one of which isolated high levels of depressive, anxious, and stress symptoms during pregnancy. After adjustment for confounders, this was the only trajectory that predicted higher internalizing behavior in adolescence. No specific maternal trajectory predicted externalizing problems. We found evidence for a prenatal effect, whereby high levels of maternal depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms in early pregnancy uniquely increased the risk of internalizing behavior problems in adolescence.Depression and Anxiety 01/2014; 31(1):9-18. DOI:10.1002/da.22210 · 4.41 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background Prenatal maternal depressive, anxious, and stress symptoms have been found to be associated with child and adolescent behavior problems. In this paper, we investigate their impact on behavior problems and depressive symptoms in adulthood.Methods Participants included 3,099 mother–offspring pairs from the Mater University Study of Pregnancy (MUSP), an Australian based, prebirth cohort study. We used latent class growth analysis (LCGA) with parallel processes to identify trajectories of maternal depressive, anxious, and stress symptoms over four time periods between the mothers’ first clinic visit and 5 years postpregnancy. We fitted the estimates from the maternal trajectories in multivariate logistic regression models to predict internalizing and externalizing behavior at age 21. We adjusted for a wide range of prenatal and postnatal factors, including maternal life events, relationship quality, contact with the new born, as well as concurrent maternal depressive and anxious symptoms and father's history of mental health problem.ResultsLCGA found seven groups of mothers; one group of mothers exhibited high levels of depressive, anxious, and stress symptoms during pregnancy but not at later time points. Their offspring experienced increased levels of behavior problems and depressive symptoms.Conclusions This paper provides the first evidence that high levels of maternal subjective depressive, anxious, and stress symptoms experienced in early pregnancy may predict internalizing and externalizing behavior problems and depressive symptoms in young adults.Depression and Anxiety 04/2014; 32(2). DOI:10.1002/da.22272 · 4.41 Impact Factor