The association between lower birth weight and comorbid generalised anxiety and major depressive disorder.
ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: Studies testing the association between birth weight and depression or anxiety have found inconsistent results and there has been a lack of research on the possible relationship between birth weight and comorbid anxiety and depression. We tested for an association between lower birth weight and major depression, generalised anxiety and comorbid generalised anxiety and major depression. METHOD: Data was taken from 2113 mothers and their offspring participating in the Mater University Study of Pregnancy (MUSP) birth cohort. Generalised anxiety, major depression and comorbid generalised anxiety and major depression at 21 years were tested for associations with birth weight using multinomial logistic regression. RESULTS: Lower birth weight was found to predict comorbid generalised anxiety and major depression, but did not predict either generalised anxiety or major depression. LIMITATIONS: We were unable to specify comorbidity by the primary disorder, or by the severity or recurrence of the depression. CONCLUSION: Previous associations found between birth weight and mental health may reflect a specific link between lower birth weight and comorbid generalised anxiety and major depressive disorders. As neither disorder individually was associated with lower birth weight, this may suggest that this developmental origin represents a unique risk pathway to comorbidity not shared with either discrete disorder.
SourceAvailable from: Jackob M. Najman[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Background Existing evidence has established that maternal infection during pregnancy and illness during early life are associated with later schizophrenia. No research has examined how the combination of these prenatal and postnatal exposures is linked to an increased risk to later schizophrenia and psychotic disorders. Methods Participants from the Mater University Study of Pregnancy (MUSP), an Australian based, pre-birth cohort study were examined for lifetime DSM-IV positive psychotic experiences at 21 years by a semi-structured interview. Structural equation modelling was used to derive a general factor of psychotic experiences at age 21. Next, we undertook a number of separate analyses to investigate how prenatal infections and infant illness susceptibility are related to positive psychotic experiences in early adulthood, allowing for tests of moderation and mediation between the two risk factors. Results After adjustment for important confounders, infant illness susceptibility was found to play a mediating role in the association between prenatal vaginal infection and later psychotic experiences. Whereby, infant illness susceptibility showed a direct association with psychotic experiences, while prenatal vaginal infection indirectly predicted psychotic experiences via infant illness susceptibility. Conclusion Our findings suggest that illness susceptibility in early infancy may be central to the relationship between prenatal vaginal infection and later psychotic experiences. Further research is needed to establish the mechanisms that link these prenatal and postnatal exposures with psychotic illness in later life.Schizophrenia Research 07/2014; 156(2-3). DOI:10.1016/j.schres.2014.04.013 · 4.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background: Exposure to stressful life events during pregnancy has been associated with later schizophrenia in offspring. We explore how prenatal stress and neurodevelopmental abnormalities in childhood associate to increase the risk of later psychotic experiences. Methods: Participants from the Mater University Study of Pregnancy (MUSP), an Australian based, pre-birth cohort study were examined for lifetime DSM-IV positive psychotic experiences at 21 years by a semi-structured interview (n = 2227). Structural equation modelling suggested psychotic experiences were best represented with a bifactor model including a general psychosis factor and two group factors. We tested for an association between prenatal stressful life events with the psychotic experiences, and examined for potential moderation and mediation by behaviour problems and cognitive ability in childhood. Results: Prenatal stressful life events predicted psychotic experiences indirectly via behaviour problems at child age five years, and this relationship was not confounded by maternal stressful life events at child age five. We found no statistical evidence for an interaction between prenatal stressful life events and behaviour problems or cognitive ability. Conclusion: The measurable effect of prenatal stressful life events on later psychotic experiences in offspring manifested as behaviour problems by age 5. By identifying early abnormal behavioural development as an intermediary, this finding further confirms the role of prenatal stress to later psychotic disorders.Journal of Psychiatric Research 08/2014; 59. DOI:10.1016/j.jpsychires.2014.08.001 · 4.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background Prenatal maternal depressive, anxious, and stress symptoms have been found to be associated with child and adolescent behavior problems. In this paper, we investigate their impact on behavior problems and depressive symptoms in adulthood.Methods Participants included 3,099 mother–offspring pairs from the Mater University Study of Pregnancy (MUSP), an Australian based, prebirth cohort study. We used latent class growth analysis (LCGA) with parallel processes to identify trajectories of maternal depressive, anxious, and stress symptoms over four time periods between the mothers’ first clinic visit and 5 years postpregnancy. We fitted the estimates from the maternal trajectories in multivariate logistic regression models to predict internalizing and externalizing behavior at age 21. We adjusted for a wide range of prenatal and postnatal factors, including maternal life events, relationship quality, contact with the new born, as well as concurrent maternal depressive and anxious symptoms and father's history of mental health problem.ResultsLCGA found seven groups of mothers; one group of mothers exhibited high levels of depressive, anxious, and stress symptoms during pregnancy but not at later time points. Their offspring experienced increased levels of behavior problems and depressive symptoms.Conclusions This paper provides the first evidence that high levels of maternal subjective depressive, anxious, and stress symptoms experienced in early pregnancy may predict internalizing and externalizing behavior problems and depressive symptoms in young adults.Depression and Anxiety 04/2014; DOI:10.1002/da.22272 · 4.29 Impact Factor