N-Butyldeoxynojirimycin is a broadly effective anti-HIV therapy significantly enhanced by targeted liposome delivery
ABSTRACT N-Butyldeoxynojirimycin (NB-DNJ), an inhibitor of HIV gp120 folding, was assessed as a broadly active therapy for the treatment of HIV/AIDS. Furthermore, to reduce the effective dose necessary for antiviral activity, NB-DNJ was encapsulated inside liposomes and targeted to HIV-infected cells.
Thirty-one primary isolates of HIV (including drug-resistant isolates) were cultured in peripheral blood mononuclear cells to quantify the effect of NB-DNJ on viral infectivity. pH-sensitive liposomes capable of mediating the intracellular delivery of NB-DNJ inside peripheral blood mononuclear cells were used to increase drug efficacy.
NB-DNJ decreased viral infectivity with a single round of treatment by an average of 80% in HIV-1-infected and 95% in HIV-2-infected cultures. Two rounds of treatment reduced viral infectivity to below detectable levels for all isolates tested, with a calculated IC50 of 282 and 211 micromol/l for HIV-1 and HIV-2, respectively. When encapsulated inside liposomes, NB-DNJ inhibited HIV-1 with final concentrations in the nmol/l range (IC50 = 4 nmol/l), a 100 000-fold enhancement in IC50 relative to free NB-DNJ. Targeting liposomes to the gp120/gp41 complex with a CD4 molecule conjugated to the outer bilayer increased drug/liposome uptake five-fold in HIV-infected cells compared with uninfected cells. NB-DNJ CD4 liposomes demonstrated additional antiviral effects, reducing viral secretion by 81% and effectively neutralizing free viral particles to prevent further infections.
The use of targeted liposomes encapsulating NB-DNJ provides an attractive therapeutic option against all clades of HIV, including drug-resistant isolates, in an attempt to prevent disease progression to AIDS.
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ABSTRACT: Globally, in the last three decades of medical research, the use of liposomes as carrier for anti-HIV/AIDS drugs is gaining prominence. These potential anti-HIV nanocarriers are concentric lipid bilayers which can be fabricated to protect molecules and to target the drugs to specific sites, which is the reason behind their popularity in the antiretroviral drug delivery. The development of an effective drug delivery system such as liposomes presents an opportunity to circumvent the many challenges associated with antiretroviral drug therapy. The physiochemical properties of liposomes such as size, charge, and lipid composition significantly affect the liposomal efficiency. These nanocarriers offer advantages such as drug loading both in aqueous region and within the bilayer of the vesicles, act as solubilizing agents, protect drug from degradation in the body, allow modification of the pharmacokinetic and tissue distribution patterns of the drug, provide drug targeting, and have low immunogenicity, biocompatibility, and cell specificity. Different types of liposome-based delivery systems, such as cationic, anionic, sterically stabilized, and immunoliposomes, have been studied for the anti-HIV/AIDS drug delivery. Liposomes, however, face challenges with regard to their use in antiretroviral drug delivery such as limited hydrophilic drug-loading capacity, issues related to physical and biologic stability, poor scale-up, cost, short shelf life, and toxicity. Numerous patented strategies have been granted in the USA and around the world related to these anti-HIV nanocarriers. In the present article, we have discussed the general physiological aspects of the HIV infection, relevance of the nanocarrier, liposomes, in the treatment of this disease and some recently awarded US patents and patent applications of these liposomal delivery systems for anti-HIV drugs.02/2013; DOI:10.1007/s13346-013-0134-2
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ABSTRACT: With the aim to reduce dosing frequency and to target drugs to cellular compartments actually in need of treatment, the design of drug delivery systems is becoming complementary to new drug discovery. The review highlights various drug/antigen delivery approaches comprising of vesicular and particulate nanocarriers that are associated with spectacular advantages like improved solubility and stability for poorly soluble drugs, good safety profile, versatility for encapsulating nearly all drugs, drug-release modulation, high drug payloads etc. In this review, light is shed on the remarkable potential of nanotechnology to provide more effective therapeutic and prophylactic approaches for the treatment and prevention for HIV/AIDS.12/2013; 1(4). DOI:10.2174/22117385113016660007