Enhancement of Human Antigen-Specific Memory T-Cell Responses by Interleukin-7 May Improve Accuracy in Diagnosing Tuberculosis

University of Texas School of Public Health, Galveston, TX 77555-0567, USA.
Clinical and vaccine Immunology: CVI (Impact Factor: 2.47). 09/2008; 15(10):1616-22. DOI: 10.1128/CVI.00185-08
Source: PubMed


Children and immunocompromised adults are at an increased risk of tuberculosis (TB), but diagnosis is more challenging. Recently developed gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) release assays provide increased sensitivity and specificity for diagnosis of latent TB, but their use is not FDA approved in immunocompromised or pediatric populations. Both populations have reduced numbers of T cells, which are major producers of IFN-gamma. Interleukin 7 (IL-7), a survival cytokine, stabilizes IFN-gamma message and increases protein production. IL-7 was added to antigen-stimulated lymphocytes to improve IFN-gamma responses as measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay. Antigens used were tetanus toxoid (n = 10), p24 (from human immunodeficiency virus [HIV], n = 9), and TB peptides (n = 15). Keyhole limpet hemocyanin was used as a negative control, and phytohemagglutinin was the positive control. IL-7 improved antigen-specific responses to all antigens tested including tetanus toxoid, HIV type 1 p24, and TB peptides (ESAT-6 and CFP-10) with up to a 14-fold increase (mean = 3.8), as measured by ELISA. Increased IFN-gamma responses from controls, HIV-positive patients, and TB patients were statistically significant, with P values of <0.05, 0.01, and 0.05, respectively. ELISPOT assay results confirmed ELISA findings (P values of <0.01, 0.02, and 0.03, respectively), with a strong correlation between the two tests (R(2) = 0.82 to 0.99). Based on average background levels, IL-7 increased detection of IFN-gamma by 39% compared to the level with antigen alone. Increased production of IFN-gamma induced by IL-7 improves sensitivity of ELISA and ELISPOT assays for all antigens tested. Further enhancement of IFN-gamma-based assays might improve TB diagnosis in those populations at highest risk for TB.

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Available from: Edward A Graviss, Oct 10, 2015
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    • "One concern relating to the development of lateral flow based tests is the ability to detect markers that are produced in low amounts. It has been shown that cytokine responses can be enhanced by addition of cytokines such as IL-7 [45] and IL-12 [46] into cultures and through the delivery of the antigens using vectors such as the Bordetella pertusis adenylate cyclase vector [47], and other adjuvants [48]. Lateral flow tests using upconverting phospor technology were shown to detect IFN-γ in culture supernatants with sensitivity below 2 pg/ml and were more sensitive than ELISA in detecting Shistosoma circulating antigens [44]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Recent interferon gamma (IFN-γ)-based studies have identified novel Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) infection phase-dependent antigens as diagnostic candidates. In this study, the levels of 11 host markers other than IFN-γ, were evaluated in whole blood culture supernatants after stimulation with M.tb infection phase-dependent antigens, for the diagnosis of TB disease. Methodology and Principal Findings Five M.tb infection phase-dependent antigens, comprising of three DosR-regulon-encoded proteins (Rv2032, Rv0081, Rv1737c), and two resucitation promoting factors (Rv0867c and Rv2389c), were evaluated in a case-control study with 15 pulmonary TB patients and 15 household contacts that were recruited from a high TB incidence setting in Cape Town, South Africa. After a 7-day whole blood culture, supernatants were harvested and the levels of the host markers evaluated using the Luminex platform. Multiple antigen-specific host markers were identified with promising diagnostic potential. Rv0081-specific levels of IL-12(p40), IP-10, IL-10 and TNF-α were the most promising diagnostic candidates, each ascertaining TB disease with an accuracy of 100%, 95% confidence interval for the area under the receiver operating characteristics plots, (1.0 to 1.0). Conclusions Multiple cytokines other than IFN-γ in whole blood culture supernatants after stimulation with M.tb infection phase-dependent antigens show promise as diagnostic markers for active TB. These preliminary findings should be verified in well-designed diagnostic studies employing short-term culture assays.
    PLoS ONE 06/2012; 7(6):e38501. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0038501 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "It may also imply that the worth of testing candidate vaccines based on these antigens needs to be reassessed in certain populations. However, it has been shown that responses to TB antigens could be enhanced if antigens are delivered using vectors such as the Bordetella pertusis adenylate cyclase vector [43], use of other adjuvants [32] or the addition of IL-7 [44] and IL-12 [45] into cultures. It is not known if addition of cytokines might have improved upon the diagnostic ability of the antigens. "
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    ABSTRACT: Confirming tuberculosis (TB) disease in suspects in resource limited settings is challenging and calls for the development of more suitable diagnostic tools. Different Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) infection phase-dependent antigens may be differentially recognized in infected and diseased individuals and therefore useful as diagnostic tools for differentiating between M.tb infection states. In this study, we assessed the diagnostic potential of 118 different M.tb infection phase-dependent antigens in TB patients and household contacts (HHCs) in a high-burden setting. Antigens were evaluated using the 7-day whole blood culture technique in 23 pulmonary TB patients and in 19 to 21 HHCs (total n = 101), who were recruited from a high-TB incidence community in Cape Town, South Africa. Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) levels in culture supernatants were determined by ELISA. Eight classical TB vaccine candidate antigens, 51 DosR regulon encoded antigens, 23 TB reactivation antigens, 5 TB resuscitation promoting factors (rpfs), 6 starvation and 24 other stress response-associated TB antigens were evaluated in the study. The most promising antigens for ascertaining active TB were the rpfs (Rv0867c, Rv2389c, Rv2450c, Rv1009 and Rv1884c), with Areas under the receiver operating characteristics curves (AUCs) between 0.72 and 0.80. A combination of M.tb specific ESAT-6/CFP-10 fusion protein, Rv2624c and Rv0867c accurately predicted 73% of the TB patients and 80% of the non-TB cases after cross validation. IFN-γ responses to TB rpfs show promise as TB diagnostic candidates and should be evaluated further for discrimination between M.tb infection states.
    BMC Infectious Diseases 01/2012; 12(1):10. DOI:10.1186/1471-2334-12-10 · 2.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We evaluated the safety, reactogenicity and immunogenicity of escalating doses of a new Francisella tularensis Live Vaccine Strain (LVS) lot by scarification (SCAR) or subcutaneously (SQ) in humans. Subjects (N=10/group) received one dose of LVS via SCAR at 10(5),10(7) or 10(9)cfu/ml or SQ at 10(2), 10(3),10(4) or 10(5)cfu/ml; 14 subjects received placebo. All doses/routes were well tolerated. When compared to placebo, vaccination with 10(7) SCAR and 10(9) SCAR resulted in significantly higher serologic response frequencies, as measured by ELISA for IgG, IgM, IgA and microagglutination; whereas vaccination with 10(5) SCAR, 10(7) SCAR 10(9) SCAR and 10(5) SQ elicited a significantly higher interferon-gamma response frequency.
    Vaccine 07/2009; 27(36):4905-11. DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.06.036 · 3.62 Impact Factor
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