Postnatal development of disparity sensitivity in visual area 2 (v2) of macaque monkeys.
ABSTRACT Macaque monkeys do not reliably discriminate binocular depth cues until about 8 wk of age. The neural factors that limit the development of fine depth perception in primates are not known. In adults, binocular depth perception critically depends on detection of relative binocular disparities and the earliest site in the primate visual brain where a substantial proportion of neurons are capable of discriminating relative disparity is visual area 2 (V2). We examined the disparity sensitivity of V2 neurons during the first 8 wk of life in infant monkeys and compared the responses of V2 neurons to those of V1 neurons. We found that the magnitude of response modulation in V2 and V1 neurons as a function of interocular spatial phase disparity was adult-like as early as 2 wk of age. However, the optimal spatial frequency and binocular response rate of these disparity sensitive neurons were more than an octave lower in 2- and 4-wk-old infants than in adults. Consequently, despite the lower variability of neuronal firing in V2 and V1 neurons of infant monkeys, the ability of these neurons to discriminate fine disparity differences was significantly reduced compared with adults. This reduction in disparity sensitivity of V2 and V1 neurons is likely to limit binocular depth perception during the first several weeks of a monkey's life.
Klinicheskaia meditsina 02/1995; 73(6):65.
Article: A simple model accounts for the response of disparity-tuned V1 neurons to anticorrelated images.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Disparity-tuned cells in primary visual cortex (VI) are thought to play a significant role in the processing of stereoscopic depth. The disparity-specific responses of these neurons have been previously described by an energy model based on local, feedforward interactions. This model fails to predict the response to binocularly anticorrelated stimuli, in which images presented to left and right eyes have opposite contrasts. The original energy model predicts that anticorrelation should invert the disparity tuning curve (phase difference pi), with no change in the amplitude of the response. Experimentally, the amplitude tends to be reduced with anticorrelated stimuli and a spread of phase differences is observed, although phase differences near pi are the most common. These experimental observations could potentially reflect a modulation of the V1 signals by feedback from higher visual areas (because anticorrelated stimuli create a weaker or nonexistent stereoscopic depth sensation). This hypothesis could explain the effects on amplitude, but the spread of phase differences is harder to understand. Here, we demonstrate that changes in both amplitude and phase can be explained by a straightforward modification of the energy model that involves only local processing. Input from each eye is passed through a monocular simple cell, incorporating a threshold, before being combined at a binocular simple cell that feeds into the energy computation. Since this local feedforward model can explain the responses of complex cells to both correlated and anticorrelated stimuli, there is no need to invoke any influence of global stereoscopic matching.Visual Neuroscience 19(6):735-53. · 2.23 Impact Factor