Article

Insomnia and its relationship to health-care utilization, work absenteeism, productivity and accidents

Ecole de Psychologie, Université Laval, Quebec, Canada G1K 0A6.
Sleep Medicine (Impact Factor: 3.1). 09/2008; 10(4):427-38. DOI: 10.1016/j.sleep.2008.04.005
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To document and provide a micro analysis of the relationship between insomnia and health problems, health-care use, absenteeism, productivity and accidents.
A population-based sample of 953 French-speaking adults from Québec, Canada. Participants were categorized as having insomnia syndrome (SYND) or insomnia symptoms (SYMPT) or as good sleepers (GS). They completed questionnaires on sleep, health, use of health-care services and products, accidents, work absences and reduced work productivity. Data were also obtained from the Québec-government-administered health insurance board on selected variables (e.g., consultations with health-care professionals, diagnoses).
There were significantly more individuals in the SYND group relative to the GS group reporting at least one chronic health problem (83% vs. 53%; OR: 2.78) and who had consulted a health-care professional in the past year (81% vs. 60%; OR: 2.8). There were also higher proportions of individuals in the SYND group than in the GS group who had used prescription medications (57% vs. 30.7%; OR: 2.8), most notably to treat insomnia, mood and anxiety disorders, or who had used over-the-counter products (75.6% vs. 62.0%; OR: 1.8) and alcohol as a sleep aid (17.8% vs. 3.9%; OR: 4.6). In terms of daytime function, 25.0% of the SYND had been absent from work relative to 17.1% of GS (OR: 1.7), 40.6% reported having experienced reduced productivity compared to 12.3% of GS (OR: 4.8) and non-motor-vehicle accidents occurred at higher rates in the SYND group (12.5% vs. 6.4% for GS; OR: 2.4). No differences were found for hospitalisations or motor-vehicle accidents. Most of the associations remained significant even after controlling for psychiatric comorbidity. Rates for the SYMPT group were situated between SYND and GS on all major dependent variables. Furthermore, insomnia and fatigue were perceived as contributing significantly to accidents, absences and decreased work productivity, regardless of insomnia status.
This study indicates that insomnia is associated with significant morbidity in terms of health problems and health-care utilization, work absenteeism and reduced productivity, and risk of non-motor-vehicle accidents. Future studies should evaluate whether treating insomnia can reverse this morbidity.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Charles M Morin, May 12, 2015
3 Followers
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Shift work disorder involves insomnia and/or excessive sleepiness associated with the work schedule. The present study examined the impact of insomnia on the perceived physical and psychological health of adults working on night and rotating shift schedules compared to day workers. Methods A total of 418 adults (51% women, mean age 41.4 years), including 51 night workers, 158 rotating shift workers, and 209 day workers were selected from an epidemiological study. An algorithm was used to classify each participant of the two groups (working night or rotating shifts) according to the presence or absence of insomnia symptoms. Each of these individuals was paired with a day worker according to gender, age, and income. Participants completed several questionnaires measuring sleep, health, and psychological variables. Results Night and rotating shift workers with insomnia presented a sleep profile similar to that of day workers with insomnia. Sleep time was more strongly related to insomnia than to shift work per se. Participants with insomnia in the three groups complained of anxiety, depression, and fatigue, and reported consuming equal amounts of sleep-aid medication. Insomnia also contributed to chronic pain and otorhinolaryngology problems, especially among rotating shift workers. Work productivity and absenteeism were more strongly related to insomnia. Conclusion The present study highlights insomnia as an important component of the sleep difficulties experienced by shift workers. Insomnia may exacerbate certain physical and mental health problems of shift workers, and impair their quality of life.
    Sleep Medicine 08/2014; 15(12). DOI:10.1016/j.sleep.2014.06.021 · 3.10 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective: To examine the unique contribution of behavior therapy (BT) and cognitive therapy (CT) relative to the full cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for persistent insomnia. Method: Participants were 188 adults (117 women; M age = 47.4 years, SD = 12.6) with persistent insomnia (average of 14.5 years duration). They were randomized to 8 weekly, individual sessions consisting of BT (n = 63), CT (n = 65), or CBT (n = 60). Results: Full CBT was associated with greatest improvements, the improvements associated with BT were faster but not as sustained and the improvements associated with CT were slower and sustained. The proportion of treatment responders was significantly higher in the CBT (67.3%) and BT (67.4%) relative to CT (42.4%) groups at post treatment, while 6 months later CT made significant further gains (62.3%), BT had significant loss (44.4%), and CBT retained its initial response (67.6%). Remission rates followed a similar trajectory, with higher remission rates at post treatment in CBT (57.3%) relative to CT (30.8%), with BT falling in between (39.4%); CT made further gains from post treatment to follow up (30.9% to 51.6%). All 3 therapies produced improvements of daytime functioning at both post treatment and follow up, with few differential changes across groups. Conclusions: Full CBT is the treatment of choice. Both BT and CT are effective, with a more rapid effect for BT and a delayed action for CT. These different trajectories of changes provide unique insights into the process of behavior change via behavioral versus cognitive routes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
    Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 05/2014; 82(4). DOI:10.1037/a0036606 · 4.85 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the prevalence of sleep disturbances and the contributing factors in middle-aged women. In a cross-sectional design of the long-term, prospective follow-up study project of 1278 families from a random population sample, the mothers of 15 year-olds were asked to fill in a questionnaire about sleep, health, health related quality of life, and health behavior. Quality of sleep was reported by 32% of women as good, 43% quite good, 12% average, 10% quite poor and 3% as poor. The most frequent sleep disturbance was awakenings in the night, which 60% of the women experienced at least once a week. Difficulty falling asleep and waking too early in the morning were reported as a weekly occurrence by 16% and 20%, respectively. Morning sleepiness was experienced by 42% and daytime sleepiness by 32%. Chronic diseases and use of medications was associated with various sleep disturbances. Both somatic and mental symptoms increased the risk for sleep disturbances. Almost one-quarter of middle-aged women is dissatisfied with their quality of sleep. Women who have chronic disease or use of medications for basic diseases often suffer from sleep disturbance, which is also associated with the health related quality of life. Further analysis of the risk factors is needed to improve the sleep health of middle-aged women.
    Maturitas 12/2013; 77(3). DOI:10.1016/j.maturitas.2013.11.008 · 2.86 Impact Factor