Insomnia and its relationship to health-care utilization, work absenteeism, productivity and accidents.
ABSTRACT To document and provide a micro analysis of the relationship between insomnia and health problems, health-care use, absenteeism, productivity and accidents.
A population-based sample of 953 French-speaking adults from Québec, Canada. Participants were categorized as having insomnia syndrome (SYND) or insomnia symptoms (SYMPT) or as good sleepers (GS). They completed questionnaires on sleep, health, use of health-care services and products, accidents, work absences and reduced work productivity. Data were also obtained from the Québec-government-administered health insurance board on selected variables (e.g., consultations with health-care professionals, diagnoses).
There were significantly more individuals in the SYND group relative to the GS group reporting at least one chronic health problem (83% vs. 53%; OR: 2.78) and who had consulted a health-care professional in the past year (81% vs. 60%; OR: 2.8). There were also higher proportions of individuals in the SYND group than in the GS group who had used prescription medications (57% vs. 30.7%; OR: 2.8), most notably to treat insomnia, mood and anxiety disorders, or who had used over-the-counter products (75.6% vs. 62.0%; OR: 1.8) and alcohol as a sleep aid (17.8% vs. 3.9%; OR: 4.6). In terms of daytime function, 25.0% of the SYND had been absent from work relative to 17.1% of GS (OR: 1.7), 40.6% reported having experienced reduced productivity compared to 12.3% of GS (OR: 4.8) and non-motor-vehicle accidents occurred at higher rates in the SYND group (12.5% vs. 6.4% for GS; OR: 2.4). No differences were found for hospitalisations or motor-vehicle accidents. Most of the associations remained significant even after controlling for psychiatric comorbidity. Rates for the SYMPT group were situated between SYND and GS on all major dependent variables. Furthermore, insomnia and fatigue were perceived as contributing significantly to accidents, absences and decreased work productivity, regardless of insomnia status.
This study indicates that insomnia is associated with significant morbidity in terms of health problems and health-care utilization, work absenteeism and reduced productivity, and risk of non-motor-vehicle accidents. Future studies should evaluate whether treating insomnia can reverse this morbidity.
Article: Insomnia in shift work[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Background Shift work disorder involves insomnia and/or excessive sleepiness associated with the work schedule. The present study examined the impact of insomnia on the perceived physical and psychological health of adults working on night and rotating shift schedules compared to day workers. Methods A total of 418 adults (51% women, mean age 41.4 years), including 51 night workers, 158 rotating shift workers, and 209 day workers were selected from an epidemiological study. An algorithm was used to classify each participant of the two groups (working night or rotating shifts) according to the presence or absence of insomnia symptoms. Each of these individuals was paired with a day worker according to gender, age, and income. Participants completed several questionnaires measuring sleep, health, and psychological variables. Results Night and rotating shift workers with insomnia presented a sleep profile similar to that of day workers with insomnia. Sleep time was more strongly related to insomnia than to shift work per se. Participants with insomnia in the three groups complained of anxiety, depression, and fatigue, and reported consuming equal amounts of sleep-aid medication. Insomnia also contributed to chronic pain and otorhinolaryngology problems, especially among rotating shift workers. Work productivity and absenteeism were more strongly related to insomnia. Conclusion The present study highlights insomnia as an important component of the sleep difficulties experienced by shift workers. Insomnia may exacerbate certain physical and mental health problems of shift workers, and impair their quality of life.Sleep Medicine 08/2014; · 3.10 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To assess the association between insomnia symptoms and risk of fatal unintentional injuries.Sleep 10/2014; · 5.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objective To measure the frequency of pharmacotherapeutic failure and its association with the diagnosis of sleep-disordered breathing among patients with chronic insomnia disorder. Patients and Methods In a retrospective review of medical records from January 1, 2005, through December 31, 2012, we identified an inclusive, consecutive series of 1210 patients with insomnia disorder, 899 (74.3%) of whom used sleep aids either occasionally (168 [18.7%]) or regularly (731 [81.3%]). Patients presented to a community-based sleep medicine center in Albuquerque, New Mexico, with typical referral patterns: 743 (61.4%) were referred by primary care physicians, 211 (17.4%) by specialists, 117 (9.7%) by mental health professionals, and 139 (11.5%) by self-referral. Pharmacotherapeutic failure was assessed from subjective insomnia reports and a validated insomnia severity scale. Polysomnography with pressure transducer (an advanced respiratory technology not previously used in a large cohort of patients with insomnia) measured sleep-disordered breathing. Objective data yielded accuracy rates for 3 pretest screening tools used to measure risk for sleep-disordered breathing. Results Of the total sample of 1210 patients, all 899 (74.3%) who were taking over-the-counter or prescription sleep aids had pharmacotherapeutic failure. The 710 patients taking prescription drugs (79.0%) reported the most severe insomnia, the fewest sleep-associated breathing symptoms, and the most medical and psychiatric comorbidity. Of the 942 patients objectively tested (77.9%), 860 (91.2%) met standard criteria, on average, for a moderate to severe sleep-associated breathing disorder, yet pretest screening sensitivity for sleep-disordered breathing varied widely from 63.7% to 100%. Positive predictive values were high (about 90%) for all screens, but a tool commonly used in primary care misclassified 301 patients (32.0% false-negative results). Conclusion Pharmacotherapeutic failure and sleep-disordered breathing were extremely common among treatment-seeking patients with chronic insomnia disorder. Screening techniques designed from the field of sleep medicine predicted high rates for sleep-disordered breathing, whereas a survey common to primary care yielded many false-negative results. Although the relationship between insomnia and sleep-disordered breathing remains undefined, this research raises salient clinical questions about the management of insomnia in primary care before sleep center encounters.Mayo Clinic Proceedings 12/2014; · 5.81 Impact Factor