Cortical [alpha]1-adrenergic regulation of acute and sensitized morphine locomotor effects
ABSTRACT The role of α1-adrenergic transmission was tested on locomotor effects of acute or repeated morphine (5 mg/kg, i.p.) administration. Prazosin, an α1-adrenergic antagonist, administered 30 min before morphine, either systemically (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) or locally and bilaterally into the prefrontal cortex (200 pmol/side) reduced the stimulatory influence of morphine on locomotion. The progressive increase of the locomotor response induced by repeated morphine injections was blocked by a prazosin pretreatment but not the behavioral sensitization on the test day. These data suggest that blockade of cortical α1-adrenergic receptors reduces the expression of acute and sensitized locomotor responses to morphine, but does not prevent the induction of behavioral sensitization.
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ABSTRACT: The low incidence of extrapyramidal side effects associated with the atypical antipsychotic iloperidone may be linked to its unique binding profile of high affinity antagonism of both α1 adrenergic receptors and serotonin 2A receptors.CNS spectrums 12/2013; 18(6):285-8. · 1.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: According to the incentive sensitization theory, addiction is caused primarily by drug-induced sensitization in the brain mesocorticolimbic systems. After repeated ethanol administration, some animals develop psychomotor sensitization, a phenomenon which occurs simultaneously with the incentive sensitization. Recent evidence suggests the involvement of Norepinephrine (NE) in drug addiction, with a critical role in the ethanol reinforcing properties. In this study we evaluated the influence of an agonist (phenylephrine) and an antagonist (prazosin) of alpha1-adrenergic receptors on the development and expression of behavioral sensitization to ethanol. Male Swiss mice, previously treated with ethanol or saline, were challenged with the combined administration of ethanol (or saline) with alpha1-adrenergic drugs. Prazosin (0.1; 0.5 and 1.0mg/kg) and phenylephrine (1.0 and 2.0mg/kg) administration blocked the expression of behavioral sensitization to ethanol. In another set of experiments, mice treated with 0.5mg/kg of prazosin+ethanol did not present the development of behavioral sensitization. However, when challenged with ethanol alone, they showed the same sensitized levels of locomotor activity of those presented by mice previously treated with ethanol and saline. Phenylephrine (1.0mg/kg) treatment did not affect the development of behavioral sensitization. Based on this data, we concluded that the alteration of alpha1-adrenergic receptors functioning, by the administration agonists or antagonists, affected the locomotor sensitization to the stimulant effect of ethanol, suggesting that the normal functioning of the noradrenergic system is essential to its development and expression.Behavioural brain research 09/2013; · 3.22 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Introduction: Illicit substance-use is a substantial public health concern, contributing over $150 billion in costs annually to Americans. A complex disease, a substance-use disorder affects neural circuits involved in reinforcement, motivation, learning and memory, and inhibitory control. Areas covered: The modulatory influence of dopamine in mesocorticolimbic circuits contributes to encoding the primary reinforcing effects of substances and numerous studies suggest that aberrant signaling within these circuits contributes to the development of a substance-use disorder in some individuals. Decades of research focused on the clinical development of medications that directly target dopamine receptors has led to recent studies of agonist-like dopaminergic treatments for stimulant-use disorders and, more recently, cannabis-use disorder. Human studies evaluating the efficacy of dopaminergic agonist-like medications to reduce reinforcing effects and substance-use provide some insight into the design of future pharmacotherapy trials. A search of PubMed using specific brain regions, medications, and/or the terms 'dopamine', 'cognition', 'reinforcement', 'cocaine', 'methamphetamine', 'amphetamine', 'cannabis', 'treatment/pharmacotherapy', 'addiction/abuse/dependence' identified articles relevant to this review. Expert opinion: Conceptualization of substance-use disorders and their treatment continues to evolve. Current efforts increasingly focus on a strategy fostering combination pharmacotherapies that target multiple neurotransmitter systems.Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs 09/2013; · 4.74 Impact Factor