Cortical [alpha]1-adrenergic regulation of acute and sensitized morphine locomotor effects
ABSTRACT The role of α1-adrenergic transmission was tested on locomotor effects of acute or repeated morphine (5 mg/kg, i.p.) administration. Prazosin, an α1-adrenergic antagonist, administered 30 min before morphine, either systemically (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) or locally and bilaterally into the prefrontal cortex (200 pmol/side) reduced the stimulatory influence of morphine on locomotion. The progressive increase of the locomotor response induced by repeated morphine injections was blocked by a prazosin pretreatment but not the behavioral sensitization on the test day. These data suggest that blockade of cortical α1-adrenergic receptors reduces the expression of acute and sensitized locomotor responses to morphine, but does not prevent the induction of behavioral sensitization.
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ABSTRACT: Aberrations in the elaboration of both aversive and rewarding stimuli characterize several psychopathologies including anxiety, depression and addiction. Several studies suggest that different neurotrasmitters, within the corticolimbic system, are critically involved in the processing of positive and negative stimuli. Individual differences in this system, depending on genotype, have been shown to act as a liability factor for different psychopathologies. Inbred mouse strains are commonly used in preclinical studies of normal and pathological behaviors. In particular, C57BL/6J (C57) and DBA/2J (DBA) strains have permitted to disclose the impact of different genetic backgrounds over the corticolimbic system functions. Here, we summarize the main findings collected over the years in our laboratory, showing how the genetic background plays a critical role in modulating amminergic and GABAergic neurotransmission in prefrontal-accumbal-amygdala system response to different rewarding and aversive experiences, as well as to stress response. Finally, we propose a top-down model for the response to rewarding and aversive stimuli in which amminergic transmission in prefrontal cortex (PFC) controls accumbal and amygdala neurotransmitter response.Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience 02/2015; 8. DOI:10.3389/fnsys.2014.00207
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ABSTRACT: The low incidence of extrapyramidal side effects associated with the atypical antipsychotic iloperidone may be linked to its unique binding profile of high affinity antagonism of both α1 adrenergic receptors and serotonin 2A receptors.CNS spectrums 12/2013; 18(6):285-8. DOI:10.1017/S1092852913000850 · 1.30 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: According to the incentive sensitization theory, addiction is caused primarily by drug-induced sensitization in the brain mesocorticolimbic systems. After repeated ethanol administration, some animals develop psychomotor sensitization, a phenomenon which occurs simultaneously with the incentive sensitization. Recent evidence suggests the involvement of Norepinephrine (NE) in drug addiction, with a critical role in the ethanol reinforcing properties. In this study we evaluated the influence of an agonist (phenylephrine) and an antagonist (prazosin) of alpha1-adrenergic receptors on the development and expression of behavioral sensitization to ethanol. Male Swiss mice, previously treated with ethanol or saline, were challenged with the combined administration of ethanol (or saline) with alpha1-adrenergic drugs. Prazosin (0.1; 0.5 and 1.0mg/kg) and phenylephrine (1.0 and 2.0mg/kg) administration blocked the expression of behavioral sensitization to ethanol. In another set of experiments, mice treated with 0.5mg/kg of prazosin+ethanol did not present the development of behavioral sensitization. However, when challenged with ethanol alone, they showed the same sensitized levels of locomotor activity of those presented by mice previously treated with ethanol and saline. Phenylephrine (1.0mg/kg) treatment did not affect the development of behavioral sensitization. Based on this data, we concluded that the alteration of alpha1-adrenergic receptors functioning, by the administration agonists or antagonists, affected the locomotor sensitization to the stimulant effect of ethanol, suggesting that the normal functioning of the noradrenergic system is essential to its development and expression.Behavioural brain research 09/2013; 256. DOI:10.1016/j.bbr.2013.09.015 · 3.39 Impact Factor