Differential Responsiveness to IL-2, IL-7, and IL-15 Common Receptor [gamma] Chain Cytokines by Antigen-specific Peripheral Blood Naive or Memory Cytotoxic CD8+ T Cells From Healthy Donors and Melanoma Patients
ABSTRACT Common receptor γ chain (c-γ) cytokines (CKs) support proliferation of CD8+ T cells in presence or absence of antigen triggering and help maintaining the immunologic memory. We addressed the effects of low (≤5 ng/mL)-dose interleukin (IL)-2, IL-7, or IL-15 on human naive and memory antigen-specific CD8+ T cells. Peripheral blood CD8+ lymphocytes proliferated with decreasing efficiency in response to IL-15, IL-7, and IL-2. Of note, IL-15 preferentially promoted expansion of CD45RA-/CD8+ T-cell memory subset. Accordingly, cytotoxic T lymphocytes specific for cytomegalovirus-derived antigens from seropositive donors proliferated in response to IL-15 and, to lesser extent to IL-7, but poorly to IL-2. CD8+ T cells were then pretreated with CK before antigen stimulation using, as read out, specific cytotoxic activity. After the pretreatment with IL-15, but not IL-2, previously experienced viral antigens induced vigorous cytotoxic responses. Minor effects of IL-7 were also detectable. In contrast, IL-2 best supported the cytotoxic T lymphocyte generation from prevailingly naive CD8+ T cells from HLA-A*0201+ healthy donors, specific for L27Melan-A/MART-126-35 melanoma-associated antigen. Cells from melanoma patients were tested before and after Melan-A/MART-1-targeted antigen-specific immunotherapy. Untreated patients showed heterogeneous patterns of responsiveness to c-γ CK. However, when naive patients whose CD8+ T cells best responded to IL-2 were vaccinated, a modified responsiveness pattern was detectable. After immunization, cells displayed a significantly higher response to IL-15 than to IL-2 pretreatment. Thus, responsiveness to c-γ CK is critically influenced by naive or memory status of peripheral blood CD8+ T cells.
Article: Increased CD4+ T cell levels during IL-7 administration of antiretroviral therapy-treated simian immunodeficiency virus-positive macaques are not dependent on strong proliferative responses.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: CD4(+) T cell depletion is a fundamental component of HIV infection and AIDS pathogenesis and is not always reversed following antiretroviral therapy (ART). In this study, the SIV-infected rhesus macaque model was used to assess recombinant simian IL-7 in its glycosylated form (rsIL-7gly) to enhance regeneration of CD4(+) T cells, particularly the crucial central memory compartment, after ART. We assessed the impact of rsIL-7gly administration as single injections and as a cluster of three doses. Irrespective of the dosing strategy used, the rsIL-7gly administration transiently increased proliferation of both central memory and naive cells, in both CD4(+) and CD8(+) subsets, without increasing SIV levels in the blood. Administration of rsIL-7gly at intervals of 4-6 wk maximized the proliferative response to therapy but resulted in only transient increases in peripheral blood T cell counts. Although more frequent rsIL-7gly "clustered" dosing (three times weekly with 2 wk of rest and then repeat) induced only an initial proliferative burst by CD4(+) T cells, this dosing strategy resulted in sustained increases in peripheral blood CD4(+) T cell counts. The clustered rsIL-7gly treatment regimen was shown to increase the half-life of a BrdU label among memory T cells in the blood when compared with that of macaques treated with ART alone, which is consistent with enhanced cell survival. These results indicate that dosing intervals have a major impact on the response to rsIL-7gly in SIV-positive ART-treated rhesus macaques and that optimum dosing strategies may be ones that induce CD4(+) T cell proliferation initially and provide increased CD4(+) T cell survival.The Journal of Immunology 08/2010; 185(3):1650-9. · 5.79 Impact Factor
Article: Elevated levels of circulating IL-7 and IL-15 in patients with early stage prostate cancer.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Chronic inflammation has been suggested to favour prostate cancer (PCA) development. Interleukins (IL) represent essential inflammation mediators. IL-2, IL-7, IL-15 and IL-21, sharing a common receptor γ chain (c-γ), control T lymphocyte homeostasis and proliferation and play major roles in regulating cancer-immune system interactions. We evaluated local IL-2, IL-7, IL-15 and IL-21 gene expression in prostate tissues from patients with early stage PCA or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). As control, we used IL-6 gene, encoding an IL involved in PCA progression. IL-6, IL-7 and IL-15 titres were also measured in patients' sera. Eighty patients with BPH and 79 with early (1 to 2c) stage PCA were enrolled. Gene expression in prostate tissues was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Serum IL concentrations and acute phase protein titres were evaluated by ELISA. Mann-Whitney, Wilcoxon and χ(2) tests were used to compare IL gene expression and serum titers in the two groups of patients. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed to evaluate the possibility to distinguish sera from different groups of patients based on IL titers. IL-2 and IL-21 gene expression was comparably detectable, with low frequency and at low extents, in PCA and BPH tissues. In contrast, IL-6, IL-7 and IL-15 genes were expressed more frequently (p < 0.0001, p = 0.0047 and p = 0.0085, respectively) and to significantly higher extents (p = 0.0051, p = 0.0310 and p = 0.0205, respectively) in early stage PCA than in BPH tissues. Corresponding proteins could be detected to significantly higher amounts in sera from patients with localized PCA, than in those from patients with BPH (p = 0.0153, p = 0.0174 and p = 0.0064, respectively). Analysis of ROC curves indicates that IL-7 (p = 0.0039), but not IL-6 (p = 0.2938) or IL-15 (p = 0.1804) titres were able to distinguish sera from patients with malignancy from those from patients with benign disease. Serum titres of C reactive (CRP), high mobility group B1 (HMGB1) and serum amyloid A (SAA) acute phase proteins were similar in both groups of patients. Expression IL-7 and IL-15 genes in prostate tissues and corresponding serum titres are significantly increased in patients with early stage PCA as compared with patients with BPH.Journal of Translational Medicine 09/2011; 9:162. · 3.41 Impact Factor