Positive effects of methylphenidate on social communication and self-regulation in children with pervasive developmental disorders and hyperactivity.
ABSTRACT This report examined the effect of methylphenidate on social communication and self-regulation in children with pervasive developmental disorders and hyperactivity in a secondary analysis of RUPP Autism Network data. Participants were 33 children (29 boys) between the ages of 5 and 13 years who participated in a four-week crossover trial of placebo and increasing doses of methylphenidate given in random order each for one week. Observational measures of certain aspects of children's social communication, self-regulation, and affective behavior were obtained each week. A significant positive effect of methylphenidate was seen on children's use of joint attention initiations, response to bids for joint attention, self-regulation, and regulated affective state. The results go beyond the recent literature and suggest that methylphenidate may have positive effects on social behaviors in children with PDD and hyperactivity.
SourceAvailable from: Yael Leitner[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) often co-occur. The DSM-IV had specified that an ASD diagnosis is an exclusion criterion for ADHD, thereby limiting research of this common clinical co-occurrence. As neurodevelopmental disorders, both ASD and ADHD share some phenotypic similarities, but are characterized by distinct diagnostic criteria. The present review will examine the frequency and implications of this clinical co-occurrence in children, with an emphasis on the available data regarding pre-school age. The review will highlight possible etiologies explaining it, and suggest future research directions necessary to enhance our understanding of both etiology and therapeutic interventions, in light of the new DSM-V criteria, allowing for a dual diagnosis.Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 04/2014; 8:268. DOI:10.3389/fnhum.2014.00268 · 2.90 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The publication of the fifth version of the DSM in May 2013 officially recognized comorbidity between Attention-Deficit Disorder with or without Hyperactivity (ADD/ADHD) and Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Indeed, the DSM-IV didn’t allow concomitant diagnosis. However, there is a clinical, neuropsychological and genetic overlap between these two disorders. Thus, 30–80 % of patients with ASD fill criteria for ADD/ADHD and in 20–50 % of patients with ADD/ADHD are found the diagnostic criteria for ASD. These observations raise the question of the link between ADD/ADHD and ASD: Is ADD/ADHD a minor form of ASD? Are ASD and ADD/ADHD different manifestations from a single neurodevelopmental disorder? Finally, are they two distinct developmental disorders whose clinical expressions would approach? Recent studies seem to distinguish two types of situations: Comorbid patients with less severe symptoms of ASD do not differ qualitatively from ADD/ADHD patients alone, which argues for a continuum between ADD/ADHD and ASD. Patients with ASD symptoms predominate are qualitatively different subjects from ADD/ADHD alone, thus corresponds to the hypothesis of two distinct nosological entities. Anyway, when ADD/ADHD and ASD are associated, there are specific clinical expression of developmental pathways and prognosis. Thus, these comorbid patients suffer more frequently from other psychiatric disorders, have a poorer quality of life, poorer adaptive functioning and clinical expression is more persistent over time. The modalities of treatment of comorbid patients may associate psychoeducational, psychotherapeutic approaches and medication (methylphenidate, atomoxetine, guanfacine, risperidone, aripiprazole).Annales Médico-psychologiques revue psychiatrique 06/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.amp.2014.03.007 · 0.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the short-term treatment effects of atomoxetine on autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms in children and adolescents with both ASD and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods: A total of 97 patients 6-17 years of age, with ASD and ADHD, were treated with 1.2 mg/kg/day of atomoxetine during an 8 week double-blind placebo-controlled period. Here, we investigated effects on two parent-based secondary outcome measures, the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC) and the Children's Social Behavior Questionnaire (CSBQ). Results: After 8 weeks of double-blind treatment, atomoxetine administration was associated with significant treatment effects on the ABC subscales Hyperactivity, Inappropriate Speech, and Stereotypic Behavior, and on the CSBQ subscale Fear for Changes. Conclusions: Our study results indicate no beneficial effects of atomoxetine on social functioning. However, atomoxetine may ameliorate restricted and stereotyped behaviors and communication. This study has been registered in ClinicalTrials.gov ( www.clinicaltrials.gov ) under registration number NCT00380692.Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology 11/2014; 24(9). DOI:10.1089/cap.2014.0026 · 3.07 Impact Factor