Using the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic for the diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders in a Greek sample with a wide range of intellectual abilities.
ABSTRACT We studied the interrelationship between the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic (ADOS-G), the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) and DSM-IV clinical diagnosis, in a Greek sample of 77 children and adolescents, referred for the assessment of a possible pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) and presenting a wide range of cognitive abilities. The agreement of the ADOS-G and the ADI-R with the clinical diagnosis was estimated as satisfactory and moderate, respectively, while both instruments presented with excellent sensitivity for the diagnosis of autistic disorder along with satisfactory specificity. ADOS-G/ADI-R agreement was estimated as fair. Our results confirm the discriminant validity of ADI-R and ADOS-G in diagnosing pervasive developmental disorders in children and adolescents with a wide range of intellectual abilities.
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ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to describe how the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) behaves in relation to the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) and to clinical diagnosis based on the criteria defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4 th Edition (DSM-IV) for children of immigrant parents. Forty-nine children of parents who had immigrated to Canada were evaluated. In this sample, the ADOS and the DSM-IV showed complete agreement. Using the standard cut-off point of 30, the CARS showed high specificity and poor sensitivity. The study proposes a cut-off point for the CARS that would include pervasive developmental disorder - not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS). Reducing the cut-off point to 20/21 increased the specificity of the instrument for this group of children without significantly reducing its sensitivity.Arquivos de neuro-psiquiatria 11/2013; 71(11):877-82. · 0.55 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A Mandarin Chinese version of the Childhood Autism Spectrum Test (CAST) and Clancy Autism Behaviour Scale (CABS) were applied to 150 children aged 4-11 years old from clinical settings and mainstream schools in Beijing. All the children were further assessed using the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) and the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R). The validity of two instruments on screening of ASC was examined and compared using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. The validity of CAST (sensitivity: 89%, specificity: 80%, PPV: 70%) was better than the CABS (sensitivity: 58%, specificity: 84%, PPV: 65%). The area under the curve (AUC) of the CAST (AUC=0.90) was significantly higher than the CABS (AUC=0.79, p=0.0002). The Mandarin CAST demonstrated a better validity in distinguishing children with ASC from children without ASC. It is an acceptable candidate as a screening instrument for ASC in large epidemiological study in Chinese population.Research in developmental disabilities 04/2014; 35(7):1599-1608. · 4.41 Impact Factor
Article: Autism traits in the RASopathies.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Mutations in Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase (Ras/MAPK) pathway genes lead to a class of disorders known as RASopathies, including neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), Noonan syndrome (NS), Costello syndrome (CS), and cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome (CFC). Previous work has suggested potential genetic and phenotypic overlap between dysregulation of Ras/MAPK signalling and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Although the literature offers conflicting evidence for association of NF1 and autism, there has been no systematic evaluation of autism traits in the RASopathies as a class to support a role for germline Ras/MAPK activation in ASDs. We examined the association of autism traits with NF1, NS, CS and CFC, comparing affected probands with unaffected sibling controls and subjects with idiopathic ASDs using the qualitative Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) and the quantitative Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS). Each of the four major RASopathies showed evidence for increased qualitative and quantitative autism traits compared with sibling controls. Further, each RASopathy exhibited a distinct distribution of quantitative social impairment. Levels of social responsiveness show some evidence of correlation between sibling pairs, and autism-like impairment showed a male bias similar to idiopathic ASDs. Higher prevalence and severity of autism traits in RASopathies compared to unaffected siblings suggests that dysregulation of Ras/MAPK signalling during development may be implicated in ASD risk. Evidence for sex bias and potential sibling correlation suggests that autism traits in the RASopathies share characteristics with autism traits in the general population and clinical ASD population and can shed light on idiopathic ASDs.Journal of Medical Genetics 10/2013; · 5.64 Impact Factor