Using the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic for the Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorders in a Greek Sample with a Wide Range of Intellectual Abilities
We studied the interrelationship between the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic (ADOS-G), the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) and DSM-IV clinical diagnosis, in a Greek sample of 77 children and adolescents, referred for the assessment of a possible pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) and presenting a wide range of cognitive abilities. The agreement of the ADOS-G and the ADI-R with the clinical diagnosis was estimated as satisfactory and moderate, respectively, while both instruments presented with excellent sensitivity for the diagnosis of autistic disorder along with satisfactory specificity. ADOS-G/ADI-R agreement was estimated as fair. Our results confirm the discriminant validity of ADI-R and ADOS-G in diagnosing pervasive developmental disorders in children and adolescents with a wide range of intellectual abilities.
"The most recent edition, the ADOS-2 (Lord et al. 2012) includes five modules suited for individuals with different developmental and language levels. It is a reliable and valid instrument to assess the presence of ASD in children (de Bildt et al. 2004; Gray et al. 2008; Lord et al. 2000; Papanikolaou et al. 2009), though Module 4, developed for adolescents and adults with fluent language, has received less psychometric evaluation. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent updates have been proposed to the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-2 Module 4 diagnostic algorithm. This new algorithm, however, has not yet been validated in an independent sample without intellectual disability (ID). This multi-site study compared the original and revised algorithms in individuals with ASD without ID. The revised algorithm demonstrated increased sensitivity, but lower specificity in the overall sample. Estimates were highest for females, individuals with a verbal IQ below 85 or above 115, and ages 16 and older. Best practice diagnostic procedures should include the Module 4 in conjunction with other assessment tools. Balancing needs for sensitivity and specificity depending on the purpose of assessment (e.g., clinical vs. research) and demographic characteristics mentioned above will enhance its utility.
Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 09/2015; DOI:10.1007/s10803-015-2586-3 · 3.06 Impact Factor
"Diagnostic assessments have been conducted using standardised instruments: ADOS (Li, Zhong, Cai, Chen, & Zhou, 2005) and the ADI-R (Le-Couteur et al., 1989; Lord, Rutter, & Le Couteur, 1994; Rutter et al., 2003). The combined use of the ADOS and the ADI-R has been widely adopted in both research and clinical settings (Papanikolaou et al., 2009), although its limitations are acknowledged (e.g., it is better at detecting classic autism than Asperger Syndrome, especially in adulthood). The Chinese versions of both instruments were provided by the publisher (World Psychological Service, WPS). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A Mandarin Chinese version of the Childhood Autism Spectrum Test (CAST) and Clancy Autism Behaviour Scale (CABS) were applied to 150 children aged 4-11 years old from clinical settings and mainstream schools in Beijing. All the children were further assessed using the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) and the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R). The validity of two instruments on screening of ASC was examined and compared using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. The validity of CAST (sensitivity: 89%, specificity: 80%, PPV: 70%) was better than the CABS (sensitivity: 58%, specificity: 84%, PPV: 65%). The area under the curve (AUC) of the CAST (AUC=0.90) was significantly higher than the CABS (AUC=0.79, p=0.0002). The Mandarin CAST demonstrated a better validity in distinguishing children with ASC from children without ASC. It is an acceptable candidate as a screening instrument for ASC in large epidemiological study in Chinese population.
Research in developmental disabilities 04/2014; 35(7):1599-1608. DOI:10.1016/j.ridd.2014.02.005 · 4.41 Impact Factor
"It consists of four modules, all of which have shown good reliability, sensitivity and specificity for both autism and ASD, both in its English and Spanish forms (Lord, Rutter, DiLavore, & Risi, 2006). The ADOS has also been used in other countries such as Greece (Papanikolaou et al., 2009) and Germany (Bölte & Poustka, 2004), and its psychometric properties were confirmed in these versions. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to compare a medical diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) with the perceptions of immigrant parents regarding their child's difficulties.
Semistructured interviews were conducted with parents. The children were assessed using the ADOS, and a multiaxial diagnosis was reached using the DSM-IV.
The majority of parents recognized symptoms in their child that were related to autism. Less often, however, parents believed their children had a developmental delay or communication problem rather than an ASD. There were also parents who failed to see any problem at all in their child although the child was, nonetheless, diagnosed as having an ASD.
The failure of immigrant mothers to acknowledge a diagnosis of ASD in their younger children may represent an attempt to preserve hope for their child's future. Mothers of older children may not, however, agree with the psychiatric diagnosis. Community services need to balance the need to convey accurate medical information with the need to protect parents' investment in their children. This may be particularly true for immigrant parents who are living outside their cultural framework.
Journal of the Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry = Journal de l'Academie canadienne de psychiatrie de l'enfant et de l'adolescent 05/2013; 22(2):131-8.
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