Disease progression from chronic hepatitis C to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma is associated with repression of interferon regulatory factor-1
ABSTRACT Background/aim: Infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) frequently results in a persistent infection, suggesting that it has evolved efficient mechanism(s) for blocking the host cell's innate antiviral response. The immune response to virus infection results in activation or direct induction of the interferon regulatory factors (IRFs), which are a family of proteins involved in the regulation of interferon (IFN) and IFN inducible genes. IRF-3 and IRF-7 have been shown to play an essential role in virus-dependent signaling, whereas IRF-1 is critical for proper IFN-dependent gene expression. This study has been performed to show the expression profile of IRF-1, IRF-3, and IRF-7 in Egyptian patients with HCV-related liver diseases and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
Materials and methods: This study included 90 patients, who were positive for HCV infection by reverse transcription PCR, divided into three groups: group I (Gr I) included 30 patients with chronic hepatitis C, group II (Gr II) included 30 patients with liver cirrhosis in addition to group III (Gr III) of 30 patients with HCC. Reverse transcription PCR analysis was performed to determine the expression profile of IRF-1, IRF-3, and IRF-7 genes extracted from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of those patients.
Results: IRF-1expression was significantly higher (P<0.001) in patients of Gr I (86.6%) compared with those in Gr II (46.7%) and Gr III (36.7%), whereas IRF-3 expression was significantly higher (P<0.005) among patients of Gr II (73.3%) in comparison with that in Gr I (50%) and Gr III (36.7%). In contrast, although expression of IRF-7 was higher in Gr II than in the other groups, there was no statistically significant difference (P > 0.05).
Conclusion: Alterations in IRFs expression might be considered as markers associated with a higher risk of cirrhosis in patients with chronic HCV infection. Expression of IRF-1 and IRF-3 were more prevalent in patients with chronic HCV and cirrhosis, respectively, in comparison with HCC patients. Thus, IRF-1 could be nominated as one of the tumor suppressor factors and could aid in the early detection of HCC.
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ABSTRACT: Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) is a pleiotropic cytokine with immunomodulatory, anti-viral, and anti-proliferative effects. In this study, we examined the effects of IFN-γ on autophagy and cell growth in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. IFN-γ inhibited cell growth of Huh7 cells with non-apoptotic cell death. IFN-γ induced autophagosome formation and conversion/turnover of microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) protein. Furthermore, overexpression of IRF-1 also induced autophagy in Huh7 cells. Silencing IRF-1 expression with target small hairpin RNA blocked autophagy induced by IFN-γ. Silencing of the autophagy signals Beclin-1 or Atg5 attenuated the inhibitory effect of IFN-γ on Huh7 cells with decreased cell death. Additionally, IFN-γ activated autophagy in freshly cultured human HCC cells. Together, these findings show that IFN-γ induces autophagy through IRF-1 signaling pathway and the induction of autophagy contributes to the growth-inhibitory effect of IFN-γ with cell death in human liver cancer cells.Cancer letters 10/2011; 314(2):213-22. · 5.02 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) and density functional theory (DFT) investigation of the dehalogenation reactions of thionyl halides (SOF2 and SOBr2) are reported in which water molecules (up to seven for some reaction steps) were explicitly considered in the reaction complex. The dehalogenation processes of thionyl halides were observed to be substantially catalyzed by the presence of water molecules in the reaction system. The reaction rate became faster as more water molecules became involved in the reaction complex. The dehalogenation processes can be reasonably simulated by the gas phase water cluster models and the results here indicate that water molecules can help to solvate the thionyl halide molecules so as to activate the release of a halide (F− or Br−) leaving group. Kinetic rate constants of proposed reaction pathways were estimated so as to compare with results from a previous theoretical study of the dehalogenation of SOCl2. The proposed reaction pathways show a decreasing barrier from SOF2 to SOCl2 to SOBr2 and this trend is briefly discussed.Computational and Theoretical Chemistry 02/2011; 963(2):325-336. · 1.37 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: IL28B single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) play important roles in the management of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections and are strongly associated with spontaneous and treatment-induced HCV clearance. In the present study, the association between IL28B variants and the progression of HCV infection in Egyptian patients infected with type 4a virus will be examined. Frequencies of the protective genotype C/C of SNP, rs12979860 were determined in healthy subjects, spontaneous resolvers, and chronic HCV type 4 patients with low F scores and in patients with end stage liver disease (ESLD). This study included a total of 404 subjects. Patients infected with HCV type 4a (n = 304) were divided into; chronic hepatitis C (CHC) with low F scores (CHC, n = 110), end stage liver disease (n = 110), liver cirrhosis (LC) (n = 35) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients (n = 75), spontaneous resolvers of HCV infection (n = 84) were also included. A healthy group representing the Egyptian population (n = 100) was also included in the genotyping of IL28B. The later was typed via a polymerase chain reaction based restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay analysis on purified genomic DNA extracted from all individuals. A significant increase (P < 0.0005) was observed in frequencies of IL-28B rs12979860 C/C genotypes in the healthy population, than in the CHC, LC and HCC groups (C/C = 48%, 13%, 0%.and 0% respectively). On the other hand the C/C genotype was significantly higher (P < 0.0005) in spontaneous resolvers than in healthy subjects. A comparable significant increase in the frequency of C/T allele accompanied by mild elevation of T/T allele frequency, were detected along the progression towards ESLD. Genotype C/C is associated with viral clearance during acute infection. The sharp decline in the C/C genotype from healthy to CHC subjects and the total absence of the C/C genotype in ESLD suggests a central role of this genotype against HCV disease progression.Hepatitis Monthly 04/2012; 12(4):271-7. · 1.25 Impact Factor