Pseudoglandular (Adenoid, Acantholytic) Penile Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Clinicopathologic and Outcome Study of 7 Patients

Hospital do Cancer AC Camargo, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
American Journal of Surgical Pathology (Impact Factor: 4.59). 03/2009; 33(4):551-555. DOI: 10.1097/PAS.0b013e31818a01d8

ABSTRACT Almost half of penile squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) are of the usual type but there is a variegated spectrum of morphologically distinctive subtypes. In a pathologic review of 375 uniformly diagnosed and treated patients with penile SCC, we found 7 tumors with predominant pseudoglandular or adenoid features. The aim of the study was to delineate clinicopathologic features and outcome of an unusual variant of penile SCC. Clinical charts and pathologic materials were reviewed. The following informations were obtained: patient's age, tumor site, size, histologic grade (1, 2, and 3), thickness in millimeters, anatomic level of invasion [corpus spongiosum, corpus cavernosum (CC)], vascular and perineural invasion, groin nodal status, and follow-up in months. These features were compared with those of 224 cases of usual SCCs. Median age of the patients was 54 years. Tumors were large (average 4.6 cm) and involved multiple sites in 4 cases; exclusively the glans in 2 and site was unknown in 1. Microscopically, tumors were SCC with acantholytic areas ranging from solid nests with early necrosis or empty pseudoluminal spaces lined by 1 layer of squamous cells or cylindrical cells strikingly simulating glands. Tumors were deeply infiltrating (4 invaded CC, 2 corpus spongiosum, and 1 invaded preputial dermis) and were of high histologic grade (6 cases). Vascular invasion was present in 4 cases and perineural invasion in 2. The differential diagnosis was with gland forming penile tumors (surface adenosquamous, mucoepidermoid, and urethral adenocarcinomas) and the angiosarcomatoid variant of sarcomatoid carcinomas. There was regional nodal metastasis in 3 patients, 2 of which died from disease. The other 5 were either alive with no evidence of disease (12 and 21 y after diagnosis) or died from causes other than penile cancer (3, 4, and 7 y after diagnosis). Comparing with usual SCCs, pseudoglandular SCCs were of higher grade (88% vs. 44%), invaded deeper into CC (71% vs. 52%), and showed a higher incidence of regional metastasis (42% vs. 25%) and higher mortality (29% vs. 19%).

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    ABSTRACT: We evaluated clinicopathological features and outcomes in patients with penile squamous cell carcinoma. We studied 333 patients with homogeneous surgical treatment, including circumcision in 4, local excision in 2, partial penectomy in 194 and total penectomy in 133. Of the patients 153 also underwent bilateral groin dissection. Followup was 8 to 453 months (average 100). The usual type of squamous cell carcinoma was noted in 65% of cases. Higher histological grade, deeper anatomical infiltration, and vascular and perineural invasion were common findings in sarcomatoid, basaloid and adenosquamous carcinoma cases, correlating with a higher rate of nodal metastasis and mortality. These features were unusual in verrucous, papillary and warty carcinoma cases. Recurrence in 22% of cases was common for the sarcomatoid, basaloid and adenosquamous types but was not noted for verrucous carcinoma. Locoregional relapse was more common in cases of usual, mixed, papillary and warty carcinoma, and systemic relapse was typical in sarcomatoid and basaloid carcinoma cases. The overall metastasis rate was 24% and the 10-year survival rate was 82%. The highest mortality rate was observed within the first 3 years of followup. High grade tumors were more common in penectomy cases and carcinoma exclusive of the foreskin had a better prognosis. The nodal metastasis risk groups were low--verrucous, papillary and warty, intermediate--usual and mixed, and high risk--sarcomatoid, basaloid and adenosquamous. Mortality risk groups were low--mixed, papillary and warty, intermediate--usual and basaloid, and high risk--sarcomatoid. These data should help clinicians to design therapeutic strategies and followup protocols.
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    ABSTRACT: Most penile cancers are squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) originating in the epithelium covering glans, coronal sulcus, and foreskin. Several histologic subtypes have been described, each with distinctive clinicopathologic and outcome features. The most common subtype is the usual SCC, representing one half to two thirds of penile carcinomas. Penile verruciform tumors encompass verrucous, warty (condylomatous), and papillary, not otherwise specified, carcinomas. As a group, verruciform tumors are low grade, with low metastatic and mortality rates. In contrast, basaloid and sarcomatoid carcinomas are among the most aggressive penile tumors. Other SCC variants, such as carcinoma cuniculatum and pseudohyperplastic, adenosquamous and acantholytic carcinomas, are rare. The most relevant clinicopathologic and outcome features are outlined for each of these SCC subtypes, and an algorithm that might aid the pathologist in the histologic classification is presented. In addition, recommendations for handling penile cancer specimens, frozen section specimens, and pathology reports are provided.
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