Pseudoglandular (Adenoid, Acantholytic) Penile Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Clinicopathologic and Outcome Study of 7 Patients
ABSTRACT Almost half of penile squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) are of the usual type but there is a variegated spectrum of morphologically distinctive subtypes. In a pathologic review of 375 uniformly diagnosed and treated patients with penile SCC, we found 7 tumors with predominant pseudoglandular or adenoid features. The aim of the study was to delineate clinicopathologic features and outcome of an unusual variant of penile SCC. Clinical charts and pathologic materials were reviewed. The following informations were obtained: patient's age, tumor site, size, histologic grade (1, 2, and 3), thickness in millimeters, anatomic level of invasion [corpus spongiosum, corpus cavernosum (CC)], vascular and perineural invasion, groin nodal status, and follow-up in months. These features were compared with those of 224 cases of usual SCCs. Median age of the patients was 54 years. Tumors were large (average 4.6 cm) and involved multiple sites in 4 cases; exclusively the glans in 2 and site was unknown in 1. Microscopically, tumors were SCC with acantholytic areas ranging from solid nests with early necrosis or empty pseudoluminal spaces lined by 1 layer of squamous cells or cylindrical cells strikingly simulating glands. Tumors were deeply infiltrating (4 invaded CC, 2 corpus spongiosum, and 1 invaded preputial dermis) and were of high histologic grade (6 cases). Vascular invasion was present in 4 cases and perineural invasion in 2. The differential diagnosis was with gland forming penile tumors (surface adenosquamous, mucoepidermoid, and urethral adenocarcinomas) and the angiosarcomatoid variant of sarcomatoid carcinomas. There was regional nodal metastasis in 3 patients, 2 of which died from disease. The other 5 were either alive with no evidence of disease (12 and 21 y after diagnosis) or died from causes other than penile cancer (3, 4, and 7 y after diagnosis). Comparing with usual SCCs, pseudoglandular SCCs were of higher grade (88% vs. 44%), invaded deeper into CC (71% vs. 52%), and showed a higher incidence of regional metastasis (42% vs. 25%) and higher mortality (29% vs. 19%).
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ABSTRACT: Penile precancerous and invasive lesions exhibit a variegated morphology. Although the diagnosis and classification of penile tumors is straightforward in most cases, a few entities are problematic, especially to pathologists from countries in which penile cancer is rarely encountered. The differential diagnosis of squamous hyperplasias from differentiated penile intraepithelial neoplasia or from extremely low-grade invasive neoplasms (eg, pseudohyperplastic and verrucous carcinomas) may be particularly difficult. Similarly, given the morphologic features shared by all verruciform tumors (ie, verrucous, warty, papillary, and cuniculatum carcinomas, along with giant condylomas), it is challenging at times to distinguish one from another. At the other end of the spectrum, because of their lack of differentiation, it is sometimes difficult to classify high-grade carcinomas, such as basaloid and sarcomatoid, which may have etiologic/prognostic implications. Penile mixed tumors, harboring more than 1 histologic subtype and grade, constitute a frequent finding in routine pathology. The recognition of distinctive morphologic patterns and histologic grades in these tumors is important because these features could be related to etiologic factors, such as human papillomavirus infection, or they could influence outcome. Penile tumors with glandular features (eg, adenosquamous and mucoepidermoid carcinomas), although rare, may be confused with the more common pseudoglandular (adenoid, acantholytic) variant of squamous cell carcinomas, their main mimicker. In this review we provide clues that may help in the differential diagnosis of these lesions.Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology 05/2012; 29(2):72-82. · 1.80 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Penile squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) arise either through transforming infections with human papillomavirus (HPV) or independent of HPV, often in the background of lichen sclerosus (LS) and lichen planus (LP). Despite impact on therapy and prognosis, etiologic stratifications are missing in most histological diagnoses and publications about penile cancers/precursors. OBJECTIVE: Classification of penile lesions into HPV-induced or HPV-negative via immunohistochemical demonstration of p16ink4a overexpression, a surrogate marker for transforming HPV-high-risk infections, and p53 expression in the absence of p16ink4a overexpression. METHODS: Archival formalin-fixed material of 123 invasive penile cancers and 43 pre-invasive lesions was evaluated for the presence of LS, LP, 28 HPV genotypes, and expression of p53 and p16ink4a. RESULTS: Seventy-two of 123 SCCs and 33 of 43 pre-invasive lesions showed p16ink4a overexpression independent of HPV-HR genotypes involved; 66 of 72 SCCs and 29 of 43 precursor lesions revealed a single HPV-high-risk-genotype (HPV-HR16 in 76% followed by HPV33, HPV31, HPV45, HPV18, HPV56); 5 of 72 SCCs and 4 of 43 precursor lesions revealed multiple HPV-HR-genotypes. One SCC revealed HPV-LR and HR-DNA. Fifty-one of 123 SCCs and 10 precursor lesions were p16ink4a negative, but showed nuclear p53 expression in tumor cells and basal keratinocytes. Forty-nine of 51 SCCs and 10 of 10 precursor lesions lacked HPV DNA. Two of 51 SCCs contained HPV18 and HPV45 DNA, respectively, but p16ink4a negativity classified them as non-HPV-induced. Twenty-seven of 51 SCCs showed peritumoral LS, 13 of 51 SCCs showed peritumoral LP, and 11 SCCs revealed no peritumoral tissue. Histologically, HPV-negative precursors showed hyperkeratotic, verrucous, atrophic, and basaloid differentiation. LIMITATIONS: This was a retrospective study. CONCLUSIONS: p16ink4a overexpression identifies HPV-HR-induced penile carcinogenesis independent of HPV-HR genotype. p53 expression along with p16ink4a negativity identifies HPV-negative cancers. Correct etiologic classification of penile lesions during diagnostic work-up allows optimal therapy decisions.Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 03/2013; · 5.00 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Penile cancer is an aggressive disease, with major psychological and social impact. The etiological factors are poor genital hygiene, the presence of phimosis, viral infection, ultraviolet radiation, smoking, balanitis xerotic obliterans, and chronic lichen. Identifying prognostic factors is important to select patients at risk for lymph node metastasis and avoid unneeded lymphadenectomy. The presence of lymph node metastasis is currently the strongest prognostic factor but its evaluation is imperfect using clinical and laboratorial methods. The treatment for invasive penile cancer is based on the treatment of primary tumor, usually with amputation and regional lymphadenectomy, treatments that have a high morbidity rate.