Article

Prevalence of Cardiovascular Events in Patients with Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

Division of Renal Diseases and Hypertension, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, Colo., USA.
American Journal of Nephrology (Impact Factor: 2.65). 10/2012; 36(4):362-370. DOI: 10.1159/000343281
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Background: This study evaluates the prevalence of cardiovascular events in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) patients. Methods: We distributed surveys to 1,439 subjects from our ADPKD research database. In total, 426 subjects completed and returned surveys; 7 of these were from children and were excluded from the study. Results: The patients who responded were female (63.2%), nonHispanic (88.1%) and white (93.6%). The mean age of the total group was 53.2 ± 13.7 years; 82.8% had a family history of ADPKD and 32.5% had reached end-stage renal disease (ESRD). With respect to cardiovascular risk factors, 86.6% were hypertensive with a mean age at diagnosis of 36.9 ± 12.9 years and hypertension was significantly more prevalent in males. In addition, 19.6% of the subjects were obese, 20.8% were smokers, 8.7% had diabetes, 45.7% had high cholesterol and 17.8% were sedentary. The most prevalent self-reported cardiovascular events were arrhythmias (25.9%), evidence of peripheral vascular disease (16.5%), heart valve problems (14.4%), cardiac enlargement (9.5%), stroke or cerebral bleeding (7.5%), myocardial infarction (6%) and brain aneurysm (5.0%). The most commonly used antihypertensive medications were renin-angiotensin inhibitors used by 75% of ADPKD patients. Older ADPKD patients and those at ESRD had a significantly higher incidence of cardiovascular events. Conclusion: These findings support the high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and events in ADPKD patients which contribute to a greater mortality risk. Due to the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in the ADPKD population, early diagnosis and clinical intervention are recommended.

0 Followers
 · 
98 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Early occurrence of hypertension is the prominent feature of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). The role of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene polymorphism and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) gene polymorphism in the clinical course of ADPKD is not well understood. However, data about the expression of these genes are lacking. Thus, we aimed to investigate the polymorphisms and expressions of both the ACE and eNOS genes that affect hypertension in ADPKD. Whole blood samples were obtained from all participants. ACE and eNOS gene polymorphisms and their expressions were analyzed in 78 ADPKD patients and 30 controls. Gene expressions were assessed by quantitative real-time PCR. Twenty-four-hour blood pressure monitoring was performed for the diagnosis of hypertension in all study participants. eNOS expression and the estimated glomerular filtration rate were found to be significantly higher in ADPKD patients without hypertension than in those with hypertension. Each unit of increase in eNOS expression led to a 0.88-fold decrease (95% CI: 0.80-0.96) in the risk of hypertension in multiple logistic regression analysis. eNOS gene expression is independently predictive of hypertension in the ADPKD population. This study showed, for the first time, a novel link between eNOS gene expression and hypertension in ADPKD.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a systemic disorder associated with various extrarenal complications. The major cardiovascular complications of ADPKD include valvulopathies and vascular ectasia. A 64-year-old man who was diagnosed with ADPKD seven years previously was admitted to our hospital for heart failure. Pelvic computed tomography revealed multiple variable-sized cysts in both kidneys. Transthoracic echocardiography showed enlargement of the left ventricle and left atrium. Severe mitral regurgitation and moderate aortic regurgitation with annuloaortic ectasia were observed. The left main coronary artery was dilated. The patient had various cardiovascular features associated with ADPKD.
    Journal of cardiovascular ultrasound 09/2014; 22(3):144-7. DOI:10.4250/jcu.2014.22.3.144
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The role of hyperuricemia in disease progression of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) has not been defined well. We investigated the association of serum uric acid (sUA) with renal function and the effect of hypouricemic treatment on the rate of renal function decline. This is a single-center, retrospective, observational cohort study. A total of 365 patients with ADPKD who had estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) >= 15 mL/min/1.73 m2 and who were followed up for > 1 year were included in our analysis. Hyperuricemia was defined by a sUA level of >= 7.0 mg/dL in male and >= 6.0 mg/dL in female or when hypouricemic medications were prescribed. Hyperuricemia was associated with reduced initial eGFR, independent of age, sex, hypertension, albuminuria, and total kidney volume. During a median follow-up period of over 6 years, patients with hyperuricemia showed a faster annual decline in eGFR (-6.3% per year vs. -0.9% per year, p = 0.008). However, after adjusting for age, sex, hypertension and initial eGFR, sUA was no longer associated with either annual eGFR decline or the development of ESRD. Among 53 patients who received hypouricemic treatment, the annual eGFR decline appeared to be attenuated after hypouricemic treatment (pretreatment vs. posttreatment: -5.3 +/- 8. 2 vs. 0.2 +/- 6.2 mL/min/1.73 m2 per year, p = 0.001 by Wilcoxon signed-rank test). Although hyperuricemia was associated with reduced eGFR, it was not an independent factor for renal progression in ADPKD. However, the correction of hyperuricemia may attenuate renal function decline in some patients with mild renal insufficiency.
    BMC Nephrology 04/2014; 15(1):63. DOI:10.1186/1471-2369-15-63 · 1.52 Impact Factor