Prevalence of Cardiovascular Events in Patients with Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

Division of Renal Diseases and Hypertension, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, Colo., USA.
American Journal of Nephrology (Impact Factor: 2.67). 10/2012; 36(4):362-370. DOI: 10.1159/000343281
Source: PubMed


This study evaluates the prevalence of cardiovascular events in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) patients.

We distributed surveys to 1,439 subjects from our ADPKD research database. In total, 426 subjects completed and returned surveys; 7 of these were from children and were excluded from the study.

The patients who responded were female (63.2%), nonHispanic (88.1%) and white (93.6%). The mean age of the total group was 53.2 ± 13.7 years; 82.8% had a family history of ADPKD and 32.5% had reached end-stage renal disease (ESRD). With respect to cardiovascular risk factors, 86.6% were hypertensive with a mean age at diagnosis of 36.9 ± 12.9 years and hypertension was significantly more prevalent in males. In addition, 19.6% of the subjects were obese, 20.8% were smokers, 8.7% had diabetes, 45.7% had high cholesterol and 17.8% were sedentary. The most prevalent self-reported cardiovascular events were arrhythmias (25.9%), evidence of peripheral vascular disease (16.5%), heart valve problems (14.4%), cardiac enlargement (9.5%), stroke or cerebral bleeding (7.5%), myocardial infarction (6%) and brain aneurysm (5.0%). The most commonly used antihypertensive medications were renin-angiotensin inhibitors used by 75% of ADPKD patients. Older ADPKD patients and those at ESRD had a significantly higher incidence of cardiovascular events.

These findings support the high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and events in ADPKD patients which contribute to a greater mortality risk. Due to the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in the ADPKD population, early diagnosis and clinical intervention are recommended.

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    • "The cardiovascular complications are the major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with ADPKD.7) The most common cardiovascular complication is hypertension.7) In structural cardiovascular abnormalities, mitral and aortic valvular prolapse with regurgitation and dilatation of the aortic root and annulus are considered as important extrarenal manifestations of ADPKD.2)3)4) "
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    ABSTRACT: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a systemic disorder associated with various extrarenal complications. The major cardiovascular complications of ADPKD include valvulopathies and vascular ectasia. A 64-year-old man who was diagnosed with ADPKD seven years previously was admitted to our hospital for heart failure. Pelvic computed tomography revealed multiple variable-sized cysts in both kidneys. Transthoracic echocardiography showed enlargement of the left ventricle and left atrium. Severe mitral regurgitation and moderate aortic regurgitation with annuloaortic ectasia were observed. The left main coronary artery was dilated. The patient had various cardiovascular features associated with ADPKD.
    Journal of cardiovascular ultrasound 09/2014; 22(3):144-7. DOI:10.4250/jcu.2014.22.3.144
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    • "In our study, no difference in cardiovascular event was observed between the normouricemic and hyperuricemic groups (data not shown). However, the possibility of hyperuricemia causing renal function decline through cardiovascular events cannot be excluded because of the small sample size and short-term follow-up [21]. Second, hyperuricemia may induce direct renal injury through the activation of the renin-angiotensin aldosterone system (RAS). "
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    ABSTRACT: The role of hyperuricemia in disease progression of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) has not been defined well. We investigated the association of serum uric acid (sUA) with renal function and the effect of hypouricemic treatment on the rate of renal function decline. This is a single-center, retrospective, observational cohort study. A total of 365 patients with ADPKD who had estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) >= 15 mL/min/1.73 m2 and who were followed up for > 1 year were included in our analysis. Hyperuricemia was defined by a sUA level of >= 7.0 mg/dL in male and >= 6.0 mg/dL in female or when hypouricemic medications were prescribed. Hyperuricemia was associated with reduced initial eGFR, independent of age, sex, hypertension, albuminuria, and total kidney volume. During a median follow-up period of over 6 years, patients with hyperuricemia showed a faster annual decline in eGFR (-6.3% per year vs. -0.9% per year, p = 0.008). However, after adjusting for age, sex, hypertension and initial eGFR, sUA was no longer associated with either annual eGFR decline or the development of ESRD. Among 53 patients who received hypouricemic treatment, the annual eGFR decline appeared to be attenuated after hypouricemic treatment (pretreatment vs. posttreatment: -5.3 +/- 8. 2 vs. 0.2 +/- 6.2 mL/min/1.73 m2 per year, p = 0.001 by Wilcoxon signed-rank test). Although hyperuricemia was associated with reduced eGFR, it was not an independent factor for renal progression in ADPKD. However, the correction of hyperuricemia may attenuate renal function decline in some patients with mild renal insufficiency.
    BMC Nephrology 04/2014; 15(1):63. DOI:10.1186/1471-2369-15-63 · 1.69 Impact Factor
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    • "Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is one of the most common single gene hereditary disorders, occurring in about 1 in every 400–1000 live births [1-3]. It is associated with renal, hepatic, and pancreatic cysts, valvular heart disease, diverticular disease, and intracranial aneurysms [4]. The genes responsible, PKD1 and PKD2, respectively, appear to have equivalent expression of intracranial aneurysms and play a direct pathogenetic role in aneurysm formation, [5,6]. "
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    ABSTRACT: An analysis of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) in a national sample of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) patients receiving long-term dialysis has not been reported. It is often assumed that patients with ADPKD are not at increased risk of ICH after starting dialysis. We hypothesized that patients with ADPKD would have a higher subsequent risk of ICH even after the start of chronic dialysis. Retrospective cohort study of Medicare primary patients with and without ADPKD in the United States Renal Data System (USRDS), initiated on chronic dialysis or transplanted between 1 January 1999 and 3 July 2009, and followed until 31 December 2009. Covariates included age, gender, race, prior stroke, diabetes mellitus, dialysis modality, body mass index, serum albumin and other co-morbid conditions from the Medical Evidence Form. Primary outcome was ICH, based on inpatient and outpatient Medicare claims, and all-cause mortality. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used for unadjusted assessment of time to events. Cox regression was used for assessment of factors associated with ICH and mortality. We performed competing risk regression using kidney transplant and death as competing risks. Kidney transplant was also modeled as a time-dependent covariate in Cox regression. Competing risk regression demonstrated that ADPKD had a subhazard ratio 2.97 for ICH (95% CI 2.27-3.89). Adjusted Cox analysis showed that ADPKD patients had an AHR for death of 0.59 vs. non-ADPKD patients (95% CI 0.57-0.61). ADPKD is a significant risk factor for ICH among patients on maintenance dialysis. Our Medicare primary cohort was older than in previous studies of intracranial aneurysm rupture among ADPKD patients. There are also limitations inherent to using the USRDS database.
    BMC Nephrology 02/2014; 15(1):39. DOI:10.1186/1471-2369-15-39 · 1.69 Impact Factor
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