Management of the Ptotic or Hypertrophic Breast in Immediate Autologous Breast Reconstruction A Comparison Between the Wise and Vertical Reduction Patterns for Mastectomy
From the *Division of Plastic Surgery, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA Annals of plastic surgery
(Impact Factor: 1.49).
10/2012; 70(3). DOI: 10.1097/SAP.0b013e31823b9a41
The Wise pattern can be used in mastectomies to address the excess skin in the ptotic or hypertrophic breast; however, limitations include mastectomy flap necrosis (MFN) and poor shape. The vertical pattern can potentially reduce the amount of MFN with improved aesthetic results. This study compares the Wise and vertical mastectomy patterns in immediate, autologous breast reconstruction.
Thirty-three patients with grade 2 or 3 ptosis who elected to undergo immediate, autologous breast reconstruction were prospectively recruited into 2 nonrandomized cohorts. Of total, 17 patients (26 reconstructions) had Wise pattern and 16 (28 reconstructions) had vertical pattern. All patients were followed for MFN, time for wound healing, and postoperative complications. Patient and surgeon surveys rated the aesthetics of the reconstructions.
The 2 groups did not differ in age, body mass index, smoking, or breast measurements. The Wise group had significantly larger areas of MFN, higher number of postoperative visits, and longer wound-healing periods, compared with the vertical group (P < 0.05). There was no difference in time to adjuvant therapy or additional procedures. Patient surveys rated both incisions with equal satisfaction, except for symmetry that rated better in the Wise group. Surgeon surveys showed better scores for the vertical incision.
The Wise pattern is associated with significantly more MFN and prolonged wound care. Despite this complication, patients rate their breast reconstructions favorably, regardless of the type of incision. Both the Wise and vertical patterns can be safely used in skin-sparing mastectomies with immediate, autologous breast reconstruction with good aesthetic outcomes. The authors recommend the vertical pattern because of less MFN and surgeon-preferred aesthetics.
Available from: Jouni Tapio Laakso
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Organisms modify their environment and in doing so change the quantity and possibly the quality of available resources. Due to the two-way relationship between organisms and their resource environment, and the complexity it brings to biological communities, measuring species interactions reliably in any biological system is a challenging task. As the resource environment changes, the intensity and even the sign of interactions may vary in time. We used Serratia marcescens and Novosphingobium capsulatum bacteria to study how the interaction between resource environment and organisms influence the growth of the bacterial species during circa 200 generations. We used a sterile-filtering method to measure how changes in resource environment are reflected in growth rates of the two species.
Changes in the resource environment caused complex time and species composition-dependent effects on bacterial growth performance. Variation in the quality of the growth medium indicated existence of temporally fluctuating within-species facilitation and inhibition, and between-species asymmetric facilitation.
The interactions between the community members could not be fully predicted based only on the knowledge of the growth performance of each member in isolation. Growth dynamics in sterile-filtered samples of the conditioned growth medium can reveal both biologically meaningful changes in resource availability and temporally changing facilitative resource-mediated interactions between study species. This is the first study we are aware of where the filter-sterilization – growth assay method is applied to study the effect of long-term changes in the environment on species interactions.
BMC Ecology 09/2012; 12(1):18. DOI:10.1186/1472-6785-12-18 · 2.36 Impact Factor
Available from: Jan H Vercoulen
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Between 2007 and 2011, the Netherlands experienced the largest documented Q-fever outbreak to date with a total of 4108 notified acute Q-fever patients. Previous studies have indicated that Q-fever patients may suffer from long-lasting health effects, such as fatigue and reduced quality of life. Our study aims to determine the long-term health impact of Q-fever. It will also compare the health status of Q-fever patients with three reference groups: 1) healthy controls, 2) patients with Legionnaires’ disease and 3) persons with a Q-fever infection but a-specific symptoms.
Two groups of Q-fever patients were included in a prospective cohort study. In the first group the onset of illness was in 2007–2008 and participation was at 12 and 48 months. In the second group the onset of illness was in 2010–2011 and participation was at 6 time intervals, from 3 to 24 months. The reference groups were included at only one time interval. The subjective health status, fatigue status and quality of life of patients will be assessed using two validated quality of life questionnaires.
This study is the largest prospective cohort study to date that focuses on the effects of acute Q-fever. It will determine the long-term (up to 4 years) health impact of Q-fever on patients and compare this to three different reference groups so that we can present a comprehensive assessment of disease progression over time.
BMC Infectious Diseases 10/2012; 12(1):280. DOI:10.1186/1471-2334-12-280 · 2.61 Impact Factor
Available from: Pengfei Xie
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Streptomyces species are widely distributed in natural habitats, such as soils, lakes, plants and some extreme environments. Replication loci of several Streptomyces theta-type plasmids have been reported, but are not characterized in details. Conjugation loci of some Streptomyces rolling-circle-type plasmids are identified and mechanism of conjugal transferring are described.
We report the detection of a widely distributed Streptomyces strain Y27 and its indigenous plasmid pWTY27 from fourteen plants and four soil samples cross China by both culturing and nonculturing methods. The complete nucleotide sequence of pWTY27 consisted of 14,288 bp. A basic locus for plasmid replication comprised repAB genes and an adjacent iteron sequence, to a long inverted-repeat (ca. 105 bp) of which the RepA protein bound specifically in vitro, suggesting that RepA may recognize a second structure (e.g. a long stem-loop) of the iteron DNA. A plasmid containing the locus propagated in linear mode when the telomeres of a linear plasmid were attached, indicating a bi-directional replication mode for pWTY27. As for rolling-circle plasmids, a single traA gene and a clt sequence (covering 16 bp within traA and its adjacent 159 bp) on pWTY27 were required for plasmid transfer. TraA recognized and bound specifically to the two regions of the clt sequence, one containing all the four DC1 of 7 bp (TGACACC) and one DC2 (CCCGCCC) and most of IC1, and another covering two DC2 and part of IC1, suggesting formation of a high-ordered DNA-protein complex.
This work (i) isolates a widespread Streptomyces strain Y27 and sequences its indigenous theta-type plasmid pWTY27; (ii) identifies the replication and conjugation loci of pWTY27 and; (iii) characterizes the binding sequences of the RepA and TraA proteins.
BMC Microbiology 11/2012; 12(1):253. DOI:10.1186/1471-2180-12-253 · 2.73 Impact Factor
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