Black tea: chemical analysis and stability. Food Funct 4:10-18

Department of Food Science, Rutgers University, 65 Dudley Road, New Brunswick, NJ 08901, USA. .
Food & function 10/2012; 4(1). DOI: 10.1039/c2fo30093a
Source: PubMed


Tea is the most popular flavored and functional drink worldwide. The nutritional value of tea is mostly from the tea polyphenols that are reported to possess a broad spectrum of biological activities, including anti-oxidant properties, reduction of various cancers, inhibition of inflammation, and protective effects against diabetes, hyperlipidemia and obesity. Tea polyphenols include catechins and gallic acid in green and white teas, and theaflavins and thearubigins as well as other catechin polymers in black and oolong teas. Accurate analysis of black tea polyphenols plays a significant role in the identification of black tea contents, quality control of commercial tea beverages and extracts, differentiation of various contents of theaflavins and catechins and correlations of black tea identity and quality with biological activity, and most importantly, the establishment of the relationship between quantitative tea polyphenol content and its efficacy in animal or human studies. Global research in tea polyphenols has generated much in vitro and in vivo data rationally correlating tea polyphenols with their preventive and therapeutic properties in human diseases such as cancer, and metabolic and cardiovascular diseases etc. Based on these scientific findings, numerous tea products have been developed including flavored tea drinks, tea-based functional drinks, tea extracts and concentrates, and dietary supplements and food ingredients, demonstrating the broad applications of tea and its extracts, particularly in the field of functional food.

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    • "Empirically, the longer oolong tea is stored and further oxidized gradually, the better it is in terms of taste (Chen, Kuo, Yang, Li, & Tzen, 2013). Tea polyphenols in Iron Buddha tea chiefly consist of green tea catechins and a small proportion of black tea theaflavins and thearubigins due to its partial fermentation process (Li et al., 2013). "
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    ABSTRACT: Total polyphenols is a primary quality indicator in tea which is consumed worldwide. The feasibility of using near infrared reflectance (NIR) spectroscopy (800–2500 nm) and multispectral imaging (MSI) system (405–970 nm) for prediction of total polyphenols contents (TPC) of Iron Buddha tea was investigated in this study. The results revealed that the predictive model by MSI using partial least squares (PLS) analysis for tea leaves was considered to be the best in non-destructive and rapid determination of TPC. Besides, the ability of MSI to classify tea leaves based on storage period (year of 2004, 2007, 2011, 2012 and 2013) was tested and the classification accuracies of 95.0% and 97.5% were achieved using LS-SVM and BPNN models, respectively. These overall results suggested that MSI together with suitable analysis model is a promising technology for rapid and non-destructive determination of TPC and classification of storage periods in tea leaves.
    Food Chemistry 06/2015; 176. DOI:10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.12.057 · 3.39 Impact Factor
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    • "Methylxanthines, such as caffeine, theophylline and theobromine, are purine bases derivatives present in tea, being the first predominant (2-4%) [83]. Caffeine is one of the most consumed substances in the world [84] and due to its chemical stability, the oxidation process does not affect its levels in tea [76]. However, some researchers found that BT and OT have greater caffeine content than GT [85] and that WT has also a higher content than GT [23] [86]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease that is rapidly increasing and has become a major public health problem. Type 2 DM (T2DM) is the most common type, accounting for up to 90-95% of the new diagnosed DM cases. The brain is very susceptible to glucose fluctuations and hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress (OS). It is well known that DM and the risk of developing neurodegenerative diseases are associated. Tea, Camellia sinensis L., is one of the most consumed beverages. It contains several phytochemicals, such as polyphenols, methylxanthines (mainly caffeine) and L-theanine that are often reported to be responsible for tea’s health benefits, including in brain. Tea phytochemicals have been reported to be responsible for tea’s significant antidiabetic and neuroprotective properties and antioxidant potential. Epidemiological studies have shown that regular consumption of tea has positive effects on DM-caused complications and protects the brain against oxidative damage, contributing to an improvement of the cognitive function. Among the several reported benefits of tea consumption, those related with neurodegenerative diseases are of great interest. Herein, we discuss the potential beneficial effects of tea consumption and tea phytochemicals on DM and how their action can counteract the severe brain damage induced by this disease.
    Current Neuropharmacology 12/2014; 12(6). DOI:10.2174/1570159X13666141204220539 · 3.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tea is the most popular functional beverage in the world and has been gaining more and more attention for its health beneficial properties. Among common teas, black tea is consumed more than green tea and oolong tea worldwide. Numerous studies have shown the biological activities of black tea and its polyphenols that include anti-oxidant, anti-tumor, anti-inflammation and metabolic regulation. Tea polyphenols such as theaflavins and catechins are considered to be multifunctional compounds that could be effective in the prevention or treatment of various cancers, cardiovascular disease, chronic inflammation, obesity, metabolic syndrome, and neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, we summarized the up-to-date research and underlying molecular mechanisms of black tea and its polyphenols.
    03/2013; 2(1):12–21. DOI:10.1016/j.fshw.2013.03.004
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