High speed GeSi electro-absorption modulator at 1550 nm wavelength on SOI waveguide

Optics Express (Impact Factor: 3.49). 09/2012; 20(20):22224-32. DOI: 10.1364/OE.20.022224
Source: PubMed


We demonstrate a high speed GeSi electro-absorption (EA) modulator monolithically integrated on 3 µm silicon-on-insulator (SOI) waveguide. The demonstrated device has a compact active region of 1.0 × 55 μm2, an insertion loss of 5 dB and an extinction ratio of 6 dB at wavelength of 1550 nm. The modulator has a broad operating wavelength range of 35 nm and a 3 dB bandwidth of 40.7 GHz at 2.8 V reverse bias. This compact and energy efficient modulator is a key building block for optical interconnection applications.

Download full-text


Available from: Ashok V Krishnamoorthy, Sep 17, 2014
  • Source
    • "Various mechanisms for achieving modulation in silicon have been investigated throughout the years. Excellent progress has been made in hybrid devices where other materials are incorporated with the SOI waveguides to achieve modulation, including group III–V materials [1], germanium [2] [3] [4] [5] [6], polymers [7] [8] and graphene [9] [10] [11] [12] [13]. Furthermore the plasmonic based approach is also interesting area to achieve modulation [14] [15] [16] [17]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The majority of the most successful optical modulators in silicon demonstrated in recent years operate via the plasma dispersion effect and are more specifically based upon free carrier depletion in a silicon rib waveguide. In this work we overview the different types of free carrier depletion type optical modulators in silicon. A summary of some recent example devices for each configuration is then presented together with the performance that they have achieved. Finally an insight into some current research trends involving silicon based optical modulators is provided including integration, operation in the mid-infrared wavelength range and application in short and long haul data transmission links.
    Nanophotonics 08/2014; 3(4-5). DOI:10.1515/nanoph-2013-0016 · 5.69 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "In Fig. 11, we show the measured insertion loss and extinction ratio for three temperature settings. The rate of the band edge shift is 0.76 nm/ • C [10], [28]. Consequently, the insertion loss and extinction ratio curves shift to longer wavelengths, but there is no performance degradation due to temperature change. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Following significant research and development work over the past few years, silicon photonics has become a promising candidate to provide low-power, low-cost, and high-speed photonic links for telecommunication, data communication, and interconnect applications. A high-speed optical modulator is one of the critical components for these links. In this paper, we report on our recent progress in the development of a GeSi electro-absorption (EA) modulator based on the Franz-Keldysh effect (FKE) integrated in a 3-μm silicon-on-insulator (SOI) platform. We first discuss the FKE in GeSi, and describe the EA modulator device design and fabrication. We then report on the performance of the fabricated device. Finally, we describe the monolithic integration of four modulators with a four channel wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) echelle grating to demonstrate a 112 Gbit/s (4 × 28 Gbit/s) WDM transmitter chip. This chip establishes silicon photonics as an enabling technology for low-power and low-cost data transmission applications.
    IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics 11/2013; 19(6):64-73. DOI:10.1109/JSTQE.2013.2278881 · 2.83 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "The efficiency of the electro-absorption modulator can be evaluated by the figure of merit α/α, which is the ratio between the extinction ratio and the insertion loss of the device [9]. For a modulator with a PMMA ridge and with double-layer graphene separated by a 10 nm-thick dielectric (ε = 3.9) it exceeds 5.2. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Theoretical investigations of graphene-based electro-optic plasmonic modulators with a dielectric ridge were analyzed and the results were presented. The effects of different ridge materials and different spacer dielectric functions were analyzed, showing that a 3 dB modulation with a 65 nm-long waveguide is possible with dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides (DLSPPWs), resulting in an energy per bit only 0.08 fJ/bit. The figure of merit, defined as the ratio between the extinction ratio and the insertion loss, was found to be about 5.2 with a low refractive index ridge and increased to over 17.3 for a high refractive index Si ridge, compared to 3.5 calculated and measured with photonic graphene-based waveguides. Additionally, it was shown that further improvement in terms of the figure of merit is possible with long-range dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides (LR-DLSPPWs), where it was calculated to exceed 72. For such waveguides, a 3 dB modulation was achieved with 10 μm-long waveguides with an energy per bit of 15.8 fJ/bit. The wavelength dependence of the graphene conductivity and, consequently, the attenuation of the waveguide were analyzed for different chemical potentials. It was shown that gate voltage applied across the graphene layers shifts the attenuation curve to shorter wavelengths, with the 3 dB modulation bandwidth exceeding 15 THz for a 12 μm-long DLSPP waveguide.
    Nanotechnology 04/2013; 24(18):185202. DOI:10.1088/0957-4484/24/18/185202 · 3.82 Impact Factor
Show more