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    ABSTRACT: Cyclooxygenase (Cox), also known as prostaglandin (PG) H synthase (EC 1.14.99.1), catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the formation of inflammatory PGs. A major regulatory step in PG biosynthesis is at the level of Cox: growth factors, cytokines, and tumor promoters induce Cox activity. We have cloned the second form of the Cox gene (Cox-2) from human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). The cDNA encodes a polypeptide of 604 amino acids that is 61% identical to the previously isolated human Cox-1 polypeptide. In vitro translation of the human (h)Cox-2 transcript in rabbit reticulocyte lysates resulted in the synthesis of a 70-kDa protein that is immunoprecipitated by antiserum to ovine Cox. Expression of the hCox-2 open reading frame in Cos-7 monkey kidney cells results in the elaboration of cyclooxygenase activity. hCox-2 cDNA hybridizes to a 4.5-kilobase mRNA species in HUVEC, whereas the hCox-1 cDNA hybridizes to 3- and 5.3-kilobase species. Both Cox-1 and Cox-2 mRNAs are expressed in HUVEC, vascular smooth muscle cells, monocytes, and fibroblasts. Cox-2 mRNA was preferentially induced by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and lipopolysaccharide in human endothelial cells and monocytes. Together, these data demonstrate that the Cox enzyme is encoded by at least two genes that are expressed and differentially regulated in a variety of cell types. High-level induction of the hCox-2 transcript in mesenchymal-derived inflammatory cells suggests a role in inflammatory conditions.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 09/1992; 89(16):7384-8. · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cyanide (KCN)-induced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) involves cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)-mediated reactions in some neurons. The present study examines the extent to which COX isoforms are involved in KCN-induced apoptotic cell death processes of cultured cortical cells. After treatment with KCN (10-300 microM), COX-2 was expressed in a time- and concentration-dependent manner increasing markedly over a 4-h period. However, no significant changes were observed in COX-1 levels at any cyanide concentration. Correlated with COX-2 up-regulation, KCN induced a time-dependent apoptotic death. TUNEL staining showed that the COX-2 inhibitor NS-398 (30 microM) blocked KCN-induced apoptosis, whereas the selective COX-1 inhibitor valeryl salicylate did not affect the level of apoptotic cell death. Exposure of cells to KCN (300 microM) for 24 h resulted in DNA fragmentation, which was also reduced by NS-398. Prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) accumulation in cell culture supernatants was increased by KCN and NS-398 blocked PGE(2) generation. PCR studies further confirmed that COX-2 expression was increased by KCN. Antioxidants phenyl-N-test-butylnitrone, superoxide dismutase, and catalase significantly inhibited KCN-induced COX-2 up-regulation and subsequent apoptosis. N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methylester an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, blocked KCN-induced PGE(2) production and apoptosis, but not COX-2 expression. Increased nitric oxide levels caused by cyanide may directly activate the COX-2 enzyme. These data show that cyanide treatment of cortical cells involves increased COX-2 expression, PGE(2) accumulation, and ROS generation, resulting in apoptotic cell death.
    Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 12/2002; 185(1):55-63. · 3.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors have been shown to block memory retention in rodents following Morris water maze training and in chicks following a passive avoidance task. However, the role of COX-2 in acquisition has not been analyzed. We show that pre-training intrahippocampal infusion of a COX-2 specific inhibitor (celecoxib) attenuated water maze acquisition. These findings, along with previously published reports, implicate COX-2 activity in both memory acquisition and retention.
    Brain Research 05/2003; 968(2):273-6. · 2.88 Impact Factor

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