Bull. Annls Soc. r. belge Ent 01/1994; 130:135-142.
Chironomus larvae were caught in some lowland brooks and one pond in Flanders. Fourth-instar larvae were identified by means of a karyological study. It was the first time that Belgian animals were identified by using this technique. We have found one new species. Chironomus melanotus is reported from Belgium for the first time. We can also confirm the presence of two other species : Ch. plumosus and Ch. riparius.
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"Arm E was well distinguished on evenly repeating groups of bands in sec. 2–4, 6–7, just as observed in the arm F in species of the genus Chironomus (Panis et al. 1994). In arm F, the main marker was the conjoint heterochromatic block in sec. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The African chironomid Polypedilumvanderplanki Hinton, 1951 is the only chironomid able to withstand almost complete desiccation in an ametabolic state known as anhydrobiosis. The karyotypes of two allopatric populations of this anhydrobiotic chironomid, one from Nigeria and another from Malawi, were described according to the polytene giant chromosomes. The karyotype from the Nigerian population was presented as the reference chromosome map for Polypedilumvanderplanki. Both populations, Nigerian and Malawian, showed the same number of chromosomes (2n=8), but important differences were found in the band sequences of polytene chromosomes, and in the number and the arrangement of active regions between the two populations. Such important differences raise the possibility that the Malawian population could constitute a distinct new species of anhydrobiotic chironomid.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: First-stage larvae of the midge Chironomus riparius were exposed in small enclosures at 19 sites located in three different river basins in Flanders (Belgium). Sediments were sampled and sieved at 200 microm at all exposure sites. A layer of approximately 2 cm of sediment was placed in each cage and 100 midge larvae were added. Cages were placed in watercourses where resident midge larvae were present. Accumulation of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni, and Zn was determined after four weeks of exposure when larvae had reached the fourth stage. Comparing metal levels between caged and resident larvae revealed no significant differences. A significant correlation between metal levels in caged and resident larvae was found when all sites were considered. However, such correlation was low (r2 = 0.28) for Pb. The highly significant r2 values found for Cu and Ni probably were due to only one site. Metal levels in tissue were related to levels in water and sediment, taking into account some sediment characteristics (particle size distribution and organic carbon) and oxygen level in the water. To determine the relative importance of these different sediment factors contributing to the variation in metal accumulation by the chironomids, nonlinear regression models were constructed. With the models used, 56.1, 32.2, and 57.4% of the variation for Cd, Pb, and Zn, respectively, could be described. None and 26.9% of the variation could be described for Cu and Ni, respectively. Among the environmental factors, organic carbon and oxygen levels in water were important in describing the accumulation of metals.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The karyotype structure and chromosomal polymorphisms were investigated in 6 natural and 2 laboratory populations of Chironomus nuditarsis from Europe and Asia. The pool of rearranged polytene chromosome banding sequences of this species was determined that includes 16 inversion banding sequences and sequences with giant DNA-knobs (ndtG1k, ndtG2k). Obvious differences were demonstrated in the level of chromosomal polymorphism between European and Asian (Siberian) populations: the former were highly polymorphic, while the latter were practically monomorphic. It was suggested to consider the Siberian populations as marginal one. Cytogenetic distances between populations of C. nuditarsis as well between C. nuditarsis and the related species C. plumosus were estimated. The data obtained show that chromosomal rearrangements play a very important role in cytogenetic divergence of populations.