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ABSTRACT Chironomus larvae were caught in some lowland brooks and one pond in Flanders. Fourth-instar larvae were identified by means of a karyological study. It was the first time that Belgian animals were identified by using this technique. We have found one new species. Chironomus melanotus is reported from Belgium for the first time. We can also confirm the presence of two other species : Ch. plumosus and Ch. riparius.