External Beam Radiation Therapy and Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Pituitary Adenomas
ABSTRACT This article discusses contemporary use of external beam radiotherapy and stereotactic radiosurgery for pituitary adenoma patients. Specific techniques are discussed. In addition, indications and outcomes, including complications, are detailed.
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ABSTRACT: The efficacy of gamma knife surgery on Cushing's disease is not well known to date. In most reported cases of Cushing's disease treated with gamma knife, the area to be irradiated was determined with computed tomography or pneumoencephalography. We report two cases of recurrent pituitary-dependent Cushing's disease treated with gamma knife using stereotactic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Recurrent microadenomas were visualized as hypointense areas using gadolinium-enhanced MRI after two transsphenoidal surgeries in both cases. The doses of irradiation given were 35 Gy and 20 Gy to the margin of the tumors, and less than 8 Gy and 21 Gy to the optic apparatus and cranial nerves in the cavernous sinus, respectively. Both patients had clinical remission with normal serum cortisol and adrenocorticotrophic hormone levels, during 2-year follow-up after radiosurgery, without endocrinologic deficiency or neurologic deterioration. Gamma knife surgery can be an alternative therapy for Cushing's disease when pituitary adenomas are apart from the optic apparatus and can be visualized clearly by MRI, even if tumors are recurrent after microsurgery.Surgical Neurology 03/1995; 43(2):170-5; discussion 175-6. DOI:10.3171/2013.7.JNS13217 · 1.67 Impact Factor
- World Neurosurgery 02/2013; 82(1-2). DOI:10.1016/j.wneu.2013.02.080 · 2.42 Impact Factor
Article: Radiation-induced hypopituitarism.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Progressive and irreversible neuro-endocrine dysfunction following radiation-induced damage to the hypothalamic-pituitary (h-p) axis is the most common complication in cancer survivors with a history of cranial radiotherapy involving the h-p axis and in patients with a history of conventional or stereotactic pituitary radiotherapy for pituitary tumours. This review examines the controversy about the site and pathophysiology of radiation damage while providing an epidemiological perspective on the frequency and pattern of radiation-induced hypopituitarism. Contrary to the previously held belief that h-p axis irradiation with doses less than 40 Gy result in a predominant hypothalamic damage with time-dependent secondary pituitary atrophy, recent evidence in survivors of nonpituitary brain tumours suggests that cranial radiation causes direct pituitary damage with compensatory increase in hypothalamic release activity. Sparing the hypothalamus from significant irradiation with sterteotactic radiotherapy for pituitary tumours does not appear to reduce the long-term risk of hypopituitarism. Radiation-induced h-p dysfunction may occur in up to 80% of patients followed long term and is often associated with an adverse impact on growth, body image, skeletal health, fertility, sexual function and physical and psychological health. A detailed understanding of pathophysiological and epidemiological aspects of radiation-induced h-p axis dysfunction is important to provide targeted and reliable long-term surveillance to those at risk so that timely diagnosis and hormone-replacement therapy can be provided.Current opinion in endocrinology, diabetes, and obesity 08/2013; 20(4):342-353. DOI:10.1097/MED.0b013e3283631820 · 3.77 Impact Factor