Center for Clinical Molecular Medicine, Children's Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Child Development and Disorders, Key Laboratory of Pediatrics in Chongqing, Chongqing International Science and Technology Cooperation Center for Child Development and Disorders, Chongqing 400014, China.
Although Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) is a major pathogen of primary atypical pneumonia in children, the clinical and laboratory characteristics of MP infection in large pediatric population are less reported. Here, we retrospectively analyzed 12,025 hospitalized children with respiratory infection by using serology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods simultaneously. The results showed that 2433 (20.23%) children had MP infection, which mainly occurred in November to April. The presence of sore throat and pharyngitis was peculiar to MP infection. The positive percentage of MP-DNA was higher than that of MP-IgM in children aged <1 (P < 0.0001) and 1-3 years (P < 0.0001). Moreover, the positive rate of P1 gene, the key adhesion gene for MP infection, was higher in children with MP infection than in those with other pathogens (P < 0.0001). Our work provides the clinical information of children MP infection and highlights the superiority of PCR and potential usage of P1 as a diagnosis target for MP infection.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Mp) is a leading cause of community acquired pneumonia. Knowledge regarding Mp pneumonia obtained from animal models or human subjects has been discussed in many different reports. Accumulated expertise concerning this critical issue has been hard to apply clinically, and potential problems may remain undiscovered. Therefore, our multidisciplinary team extensively reviewed the literature regarding Mp pneumonia, and compared findings from animal models with those from human subjects. In human beings, the characteristic pathological features of Mp pneumonia have been reported as alveolar infiltration with neutrophils and lymphocytes and lymphocyte/plasma cell infiltrates in the peri-bronchovascular area. Herein, we demonstrated the novel aspects of Mp pneumonia that the severity of the Mp pneumonia seemed to depend on the host innate immunity to the Mp, which might be accelerated by antecedent Mp exposure (re-exposure or latent respiratory infection) through up-regulation of Toll-like receptor 2 expression on bronchial epithelial cells and alveolar macrophages. The macrolides therapy might be beneficial for the patients with macrolide-resistant Mp pneumonia via not bacteriological but immunomodulative effects. This exhaustive review focuses on pathogenesis and extends to some therapeutic implications such as clarithromycin, and discusses the various diverse aspects of Mp pneumonia. It is our hope that this might lead to new insights into this common respiratory disease.
Frontiers in Microbiology 08/2014; 5:410. DOI:10.3389/fmicb.2014.00410 · 3.99 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This retrospective study was conducted to investigate the clinical significance of different Mycoplasma pneumoniae bacterial load in patients with M. pneumoniae pneumonia (MP) in children.
Patients with MP (n=511) were identified at the Children's Hospital Affiliated to Soochow University database during an outbreak of MP between January 2012 and February 2013.
Comparing patients with high and low bacterial load those with higher loads were significantly older (p<0.01) and had fever significantly more frequently (p=0.01). Presence of wheezing at presentation was associated with low bacterial load (p=0.03). Baseline positive IgM was present in 93 (56.4%) patients with high bacterial load compared to 46 (27.8%) patients with low bacterial load (p<0.001). Co-infection with viruses was found significantly more frequent among patients with low bacterial load (24.2%) than those with high bacterial load (8.5%) [p<0.001]. Bacterial co-infection was also more frequently detected among patients with low bacterial load (22.4%) than in those with high bacterial load (12.1%) [p=0.01].
M. pneumoniae at a high bacterial load could be an etiologic agent of respiratory tract disease, whereas the etiologic role of MP at a low bacterial load remains to be determined.
The Brazilian journal of infectious diseases: an official publication of the Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases 01/2013; 18(2):124-8. DOI:10.1016/j.bjid.2013.06.004 · 1.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) infection is the dominant cause of pneumonia in children. We sought to determine the relationship between MP infection and secondary allergic disease and to clarify the associated mechanisms of inflammatory response. A prospective study was performed among 1330 patients diagnosed with pneumonia to investigate the patient immune status by determining the correlation between MP infection, immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels, and a spectrum of associated serum cytokines. Serum IgE, IL-4, IL-6, and IL-10 levels for MPP patients in the acute phase were obviously higher than those in the recovery phase (P < 0.01). MPP patients with allergic conditions had increased serum IgE levels and increased IL-4/INF- γ ratio, and IgE and Eosinophil Cationic Protein were further elevated in patients who eventually developed secondary asthma changes. Patients with severe pneumonia and high clinical pulmonary infection scores presented higher levels of IL-4 and IL-5 in serum than those with low scores (P < 0.01). The proportion of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells that secreted IL-4 was significantly increased in MPP patients with elevated IgE. Our data demonstrate a significant correlation between MP infection and IgE levels, which is associated with a Th1/Th2 cytokine imbalance.
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