Age, Race, Sex, Stage, and Incidence of Cutaneous Lymphoma
ABSTRACT The incidence of the T- and B-cell CLs has been well documented, but information pertaining to racial incidence by age, and by burden of disease (stage) have not been extensively documented.
The SEER 2004-2008 public use database was investigated. The relative incidence of CL in different races and age groups was examined. Univariate and multivariate stepwise logistic regression was performed for the likelihood of presenting at a higher stage.
Of 4496 patients diagnosed with CL between 2004 and 2008; 1713 patients were diagnosed with MF, 1518 with non-MF cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, and 1265 patients with cutaneous B-cell lymphoma. For MF, there was a trend for females to be less likely to present with a higher T-stage (T3-T4) than males (odds ratio [OR], 0.73) on multivariate analysis (P = .06). For race, AA had a significantly increased risk of presenting with higher T-stage (T3-T4) MF (OR, 1.72) on multivariate analysis (P = .02), compared with white patients. For white, AA, Asian/Pacific Islander, and Native American/other/unknown, the mean age at diagnosis was 59.2, 51.5, 51.3, and 53.8. These groups presented at a significantly different age than white (P = .0001, 0.0001, and 0.0006).
Nonwhite racial groups present with MF at an earlier age compared with white, and AA have increased risk of presenting with higher T-stage compared with white. These findings have significant implications regarding need for earlier diagnosis and understanding the reasons for racial disparity in age and stage of presentation.
- SourceAvailable from: Ivan V Litvinov[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Deregulation of STAT signaling has been implicated in the pathogenesis for a variety of cancers, including CTCL. Recent reports indicate that loss of STAT4 expression is an important prognostic marker for CTCL progression and is associated with the acquisition of T helper 2 cell phenotype by malignant cells. However, little is known about the molecular mechanism behind the downregulation of STAT4 in this cancer. In the current work we test the expression of STAT4 and STAT6 via RT-PCR and/or Western Blot in CTCL lesional skin samples and in immortalized patient-derived cell lines. In these malignant cell lines we correlate the expression of STAT4 and STAT6 with the T helper (Th) phenotype markers and test the effect of Histone Deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors and siRNA-mediated knock down of miR-155 on STAT4 expression. Our findings demonstrate that STAT4 expression correlates with Th1 phenotype, while STAT6 is associated with the Th2 phenotype. Our results further document that STAT4 and STAT6 genes are inversely regulated in CTCL. Treatment with HDAC inhibitors upregulates STAT4 expression, while at the same time decreases STAT6 expression in MyLa cells. Also, siRNA-mediated knock down of miR-155 leads to upregulation in STAT4 expression in MyLa cells. In summary, our results suggest that loss of STAT4 expression and associated switch to Th2 phenotype during Mycosis Fungoides progression may be driven via aberrant histone acetylation and/or upregulation of oncogenic miR-155 microRNA.Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.) 09/2014; 13(18):2975-2982. DOI:10.4161/15384101.2014.947759 · 5.01 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Limited data exist on patients with mycosis fungoides (MF) and Sézary syndrome (SS) from the southeastern United States, a region with a high proportion of African Americans (AA). We sought to determine clinical characteristics, prognostic factors, and survival of patients with MF/SS in a southeastern US cohort, compare with other cohorts, and validate proposed revisions in MF/SS staging. This was a retrospective chart review of patients from an academic dermatology referral center (Atlanta, GA) from 1998 to 2013. Kaplan-Meier estimates were calculated for overall survival, disease-specific survival, and progression; univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard models were used for assessment of prognostic variables. Of 393 patients, 55.2% were white, 43.3% AA, and 1.5% other; 52.7% were male and 47.3% female (ratio 1.1:1). Mean age was 53.6 years; mean age among AA was 48.9 years. In all, 19.6% died of disease; 21.9% experienced disease progression. Advanced TNMB classification, presence of a circulating clone without phenotypic evidence of blood involvement, and older age were predictors of poor disease-specific survival in the multivariate analysis, whereas AA race was not. This study was from a single academic center. Outcomes of our patients generally paralleled those of other geographic regions. MF/SS may affect younger patients and more women than previously recognized, particularly among AA. Survival among AA may be more favorable than that observed in prior reports. Our data support the validity of the staging criteria revisions for MF/SS. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 11/2014; 72(2). DOI:10.1016/j.jaad.2014.10.019 · 5.00 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Lymphomatoid contact dermatitis is a pseudolymphoma with clinical and histological features of allergic contact dermatitis and cutaneous T cell lymphoma. Incorrect diagnosis may lead to unnecessary testing, unnecessary treatment, or patient harm. The objective of this study is to present a case to demonstrate the diagnostic challenge and overlap between allergic contact dermatitis and cutaneous T cell lymphoma in a patient with lymphomatoid contact dermatitis caused by methylchoroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone and paraben mix, and to review the existing literature in order to summarize the demographics, clinical features, allergens and treatments reported for lymphomatoid contact dermatitis. A search of major scientific databases was conducted for English-language articles reporting cases of lymphomatoid contact dermatitis or additional synonymous search headings. Nineteen articles with a total of 23 patients were analysed. Lymphomatoid contact dermatitis was more common in men, with an average age of 58.5 years. Fourteen unique allergens were identified and confirmed by patch testing. However, no single test or study was diagnostic of lymphomatoid contact dermatitis. Allergen avoidance was the most useful management tool, but selected patients required topical or systemic immunosuppression. In conclusion, without specific diagnostic features, evaluation for lymphomatoid contact dermatitis should include a thorough history and examination, patch testing, and biopsy with immunohistochemistry and clonality studies.Contact Dermatitis 10/2014; 72(2). DOI:10.1111/cod.12294 · 3.62 Impact Factor