Small Cell Bladder Cancer: Biology and Management

University of Southern California Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, Los Angeles, CA.
Seminars in Oncology (Impact Factor: 3.9). 10/2012; 39(5):615-8. DOI: 10.1053/j.seminoncol.2012.08.009
Source: PubMed


Small cell bladder cancer (SCBC) is a rare and aggressive form of bladder cancer. It exhibits similar biological behavior to small cell lung carcinoma. Untreated, it is associated with a very poor prognosis. Appropriate oncologic surgery remains the mainstay of treatment of this disease but is not curative alone in the majority of the cases. Adding systemic therapy to the treatment regimen has been shown to improve survival. The most common chemotherapy regimens used in published series include a platinum complex plus etoposide, although doxorubicin-based regimens and standard urothelial cancer regimens also have been associated with response. Despite robust chemotherapy responses, metastatic disease is associated with relapse and a median overall survival of 18 months or less. Better understanding of the molecular alterations driving SCBC may facilitate the development of new therapeutic strategies and improved outcomes.

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    ABSTRACT: To compare survival outcomes and diversion-related complications of patients with and without a history of pelvic irradiation who underwent radical cystectomy. Three hundred sixty-four patients underwent radical cystectomy for bladder cancer (BCa) from July 2001 to September 2013. Thirty-seven patients (10%) had a history of pelvic irradiation, and 327 (90%) did not. The Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression models were applied to evaluate survival outcomes. Diversion-related complications were tabulated. The proportion of non-organ-confined disease was numerically higher in irradiated than in nonirradiated patients (18 of 37 [49%] vs 117 of 327 [36%] patients, P = .1). The difference in the proportion of T4 disease between the 2 groups was statistically significant (13 of 37 [35%] irradiated vs 37 of 327 [11%] nonirradiated patients, P = .005). Pelvic lymph node dissection could not be performed in 7 of 37 irradiated patients. A nonurothelial carcinoma histology was more frequent in irradiated than in nonirradiated patients (5 of 37 [14%] vs 19 of 327 [6%], P = .003). At 3 years, BCa recurrence-free survival estimates were 70 ± 9% and 77 ± 3% (log-rank P = .5), and BCa-specific survival estimates were 64 ± 9% and 69 ± 3% (log-rank P = .4), for irradiated and nonirradiated patients, respectively. In multivariate analysis, a history of pelvic irradiation was not predictive of BCa recurrence or BCa-specific death. Rates of diversion-related complications did not differ between the 2 groups. BCa patients with a history of pelvic irradiation present with more advanced disease. Surgery remains difficult in this group of patients as pelvic lymph node dissection is omitted in approximately 1 of 5 patients. Within limitations, prior pelvic irradiation is not predictive of survival outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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    ABSTRACT: In most cases, localized small-cell bladder cancer requires cystectomy for optimal cure rates. © 2015 UBM Medica Healthcare Publications. All rights reserved.
    Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.) 09/2015; 29(9). · 2.32 Impact Factor