Small Cell Bladder Cancer: Biology and Management
ABSTRACT Small cell bladder cancer (SCBC) is a rare and aggressive form of bladder cancer. It exhibits similar biological behavior to small cell lung carcinoma. Untreated, it is associated with a very poor prognosis. Appropriate oncologic surgery remains the mainstay of treatment of this disease but is not curative alone in the majority of the cases. Adding systemic therapy to the treatment regimen has been shown to improve survival. The most common chemotherapy regimens used in published series include a platinum complex plus etoposide, although doxorubicin-based regimens and standard urothelial cancer regimens also have been associated with response. Despite robust chemotherapy responses, metastatic disease is associated with relapse and a median overall survival of 18 months or less. Better understanding of the molecular alterations driving SCBC may facilitate the development of new therapeutic strategies and improved outcomes.
- Urology 12/1995; 46(5):617-30. DOI:10.1016/S0090-4295(99)80290-8 · 2.13 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We present 51 cases of primary small cell carcinoma of the bladder in a clinicopathological study with emphasis on features that aid in the initial recognition and diagnosis of small cell carcinoma of the bladder. The patients were 40 men and 11 women between the ages of 39 and 87 years (mean age 67 years). Clinical data were available in 41 cases. The most common symptomatology was haematuria in 63% of the patients while dysuria was present in 12%. Thirty-eight patients were caucasians; seven patients were Hispanics; two patients were Asian; one patient was African-American; in the three additional patients no racial information was obtained. Biopsy material was obtained in all of the patients. Cystectomy was performed in 20 patients. At diagnosis, clinical stage was as follows: stage I in two (5%), stage II in 18 (44%), stage III in 10 (24%), and stage IV in 11 (27%). Histologically, urothelial carcinoma was present in 70% of the cases, adenocarcinoma in 8%, and squamous cell carcinoma in 10% of the cases. Small cell carcinoma was the only histology present in only 12% of the cases studied. Immunohistochemical studies using chromogranin, synaptophysin and chromogranin were positive in 30-70% of the cases. The present study highlights the unusual phenomenon of pure small cell carcinoma of the bladder and its association with other non-small cell carcinomas in that anatomical location. In addition, the study highlights the different modalities employed to treat patients in whom there is a component of small cell carcinoma of the bladder.Histopathology 02/2005; 46(1):57-63. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2559.2004.01980.x · 3.30 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In most cases, small-cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is admixed with other histological types of bladder carcinoma. To understand the pathogenetic relationship between the two tumor types, we analyzed histologically distinct tumor cell populations from the same patient for loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and X chromosome inactivation (in female patients). We examined five polymorphic microsatellite markers located on chromosome 3p25-26 (D3S3050), chromosome 9p21 (IFNA and D9S171), chromosome 9q32-33 (D9S177), and chromosome 17p13 (TP53) in 20 patients with small-cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder and concurrent urothelial carcinoma. DNA samples were prepared from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections using laser-assisted microdissection. A nearly identical pattern of allelic loss was observed in the two tumor types in all cases, with an overall frequency of allelic loss of 90% (18 of 20 cases). Three patients showed different allelic loss patterns in the two tumor types at a single locus; however, the LOH patterns at the remaining loci were identical. Similarly, the same pattern of nonrandom X chromosome inactivation was present in both carcinoma components in the four cases analyzed. Concordant genetic alterations and X chromosome inactivation between small-cell carcinoma and coexisting urothelial carcinoma suggest that both tumor components originate from the same cells in the urothelium.American Journal Of Pathology 06/2005; 166(5):1533-9. DOI:10.1016/S0002-9440(10)62369-3 · 4.60 Impact Factor