RESIDENTIAL STATUS AND HIV RISK BEHAVIORS AMONG PUERTO RICAN DRUG INJECTORS IN NEW YORK AND PUERTO RICO1*
ABSTRACT This article investigates the association between residential status and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk behaviors among island and New York Puerto Rican injection drug users (IDUs). We assigned 561 subjects from New York City and 312 from Puerto Rico to five residential status categories: living in parent's home, living in own home, living in other's home, living in temporary housing (hotel, single-room occupancy [SRO] hotels), and homeless (living in streets/shelters). Dependent variables included injection- and sex-related risk behaviors (sharing syringes, sharing other injection paraphernalia, shooting gallery use, and having paid sex). Chi square, t tests, and multivariate logistic analysis tests were performed separately by site. About one-quarter of the sample in each site was homeless. Island Puerto Ricans were more likely to live with their parents (44% vs. 12%, p <. 001), and more New York IDUs lived in their own home (30% vs. 14%, p <. 001). In New York, gallery use and paid sex were associated with living in other's home, living in parent's home, and being homeless. Sharing paraphernalia was related to living in other's home, living in temporary housing, and being homeless. In Puerto Rico, having paid sex was associated with homelessness. High-risk behaviors were more likely among homeless IDUs in both sites. Programs to provide housing and target outreach and other prevention programs for homeless IDUs would be helpful in reducing HIV risk.
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ABSTRACT: Using cross-sectional analysis we examined residential status and associated differences in HIV risk behaviors among 3266 young IDUs enrolled in an HIV prevention trial. A three-level outcome (homeless (37%), equivocally housed (17%), housed (46%)) was defined based on responses to two questions assessing subjective and objective criteria for homelessness: "equivocally housed" participants were discordant on these measures. In multivariate analysis, antecedents of homelessness were having lived in an out-of-home placement, been thrown out of the home or in juvenile detention, and experienced childhood abuse; while correlates included receiving income from other and illegal sources, drinking alcohol or using methamphetamine at least daily, using shooting galleries, backloading, and sex work. A subset of these variables was associated with being equivocally housed. HIV risk varies by housing status, with homeless IDUs at highest risk. Programs for IDUs should utilize a more specific definition of residential status to target IDUs needing intervention.AIDS and Behavior 12/2007; 11(6):854-63. DOI:10.1007/s10461-007-9248-1 · 3.49 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Using social network analysis, we investigated how communal meeting places can link injection drug user (IDU) populations and create opportunities for the transmission of bloodborne pathogens. In our locale, specific hotels played a key role in the injection drug scene. Within this hotel network some IDU injected at only one hotel while others injected at multiple hotels; this latter group potentially acted as spatial bridges linking relatively distinct hotel networks. Pathogen prevalence showed a gradation with the highest prevalence occurring at the centre of the network. Consistent with pathogen prevalence, people most central to the network were more likely to engage in risky injection practices. Incorporating geographic place into analyses involving IDU can contribute to an understanding of pathogen transmission patterns in an area and assist public health efforts to develop targeted intervention programs.Health & Place 10/2007; 13(3):617-28. DOI:10.1016/j.healthplace.2006.09.002 · 2.44 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Latinos in the United States are an ethnically diverse group disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS. We describe HIV seroprevalence, HIV risk behaviors and utilization of health services among Mexican American injection drug users (IDUs) in California (n = 286) and compare them to White (n = 830) and African American (n = 314) IDUs. Study participants were recruited from syringe exchange programs (n = 24) in California. HIV seroprevalence among Mexican Americans (0.5%) was dramatically lower than Whites (5%) and African Americans (8%). Mexican Americans reported fewer sex-related risks than Whites and African Americans though injection-related risks remained high. Compared to Whites, Mexican Americans were more likely to participate in drug treatment during a 6 month period (AOR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1, 2.0) but less likely to receive any health care (AOR 0.6, 95% CI 0.5, 0.8). Exploring cultural and structural factors among Mexican American IDUs may offer new insights into how to maintain low rates of HIV seroprevalence and reduce barriers to health care utilization.AIDS and Behavior 12/2009; 15(1):95-102. DOI:10.1007/s10461-009-9614-2 · 3.49 Impact Factor