Indigenous chicken production in South-east Asia
ABSTRACT The poultry industry of South-east Asia has two important types of production. These are: a commercial sector, characterized by its use of highly intensive units and the fact that it has developed very rapidly over the past two decades; and the traditional village-based system which has been little affected by the increasing numbers of commercial birds. The village poultry system relies on minimal resource input and, although secondary to other agricultural activities, has an important role in providing the local population with income and high quality protein. Almost every rural community keeps small flocks of indigenous chickens under a backyard type system. The sheds, when provided, are made from local materials. Whilst the birds are fed kitchen left-overs, sometimes supplemented with cheap, locally available grains, most of their time is spent scavenging. There is no breeding programme and close inbreeding occurs among the indigenous stocks. The high incidence of disease is the greatest constraint on rural poultry development.
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ABSTRACT: The impact of avian influenza (AI) on Thai indigenous chicken genetic resources following the outbreak of the disease in 2004 forms the main objective of this review. A survey was performed on 482 households from 27 villages in seven sub-districts. A total of 482 households representing the North, Northeast and central regions of Thailand were extensively interviewed. All villages had incidents of AI outbreak and chicken depopulation, according to government records. After the AI outbreak, most parental restocking of indigenous chickens in the Northeast and North was from local or home-grown areas, while restocking in the central region was from various external sources. The result found that approximately 45% of those interviewed decreased the number of chickens reared, 40% restocked chickens back to the original number, 15% increased the number of chickens reared, and a few stopped rearing altogether. Thai indigenous chicken strains are traditionally classified by feather colour: black, yellow, red, grey, striped, green, straw, bronze and white. A total of 679 mature and 387 young roosters were photographed and classified by feather colour, shank colour, and comb types. It was found that the AI outbreak had an impact on the genetic resources of Thai indigenous chickens. The percentage of the black-feathered strain, which is mainly found in the North and Northeast, is now in decline. The yellow-feathered strain, which is mainly found in the central region, has also noticeably decreased. On the other hand, mixed strains started to increase. Consequently, the original indigenous genetics tended to represent less and less of the total population, while mixed strains continually increased. This study revealed that the AI outbreak had an impact on genetic diversity of Thai indigenous chickens of Thailand.World's Poultry Science Journal 09/2012; 68(3):503-512. · 1.16 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The epidemiology of circulating Newcastle disease virus in village chickens, using hemagglutination inhibition, RT-PCR and real-time RT-PCR was conducted by using systematic random sampling design for collection of samples. Total 1050 sera samples and 1820 tracheal and cloacal swabs were tested from chickens in 21 villages in Fars province, Iran. Samples were collected in January and February 2010. Hemagglutination inhibition test was used to screen the collected sera. RT-PCR and real time RT-PCR tests were used for virus detection in tracheal and cloacal swabs. The performed survey showed that chickens in thirteen (61.9%) villages (epidemiological units) were sero-positive, but no virus was detected in RT-PCR tests. Hemagglutination inhibition antibody titer varied from nil to 2 8 in the chicken sera. The chicken in the studied area were not vaccinated against Newcastle disease virus, but some of them showed high antibody titer (up to 2 8). This study shows that a pathogenic Newcastle disease virus is circulating in the area and it could be regarded as a potential threat to poultry industry at the studied area.
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ABSTRACT: Even with continuous vector control, dengue is still a growing threat to public health in Southeast Asia. Main causes comprise difficulties in identifying productive breeding sites and inappropriate targeted chemical interventions. In this region, rural families keep live birds in backyards and dengue mosquitoes have been reported in containers in the cages. Such waste contains nutrients. To focus on this particular breeding site, we examined the capacity of bird fecal matter (BFM) from the spotted dove, to support Ae. albopictus larval growth. The impact of BFM larval uptake on some adult fitness traits influencing vectorial capacity was also investigated. In serial bioassays involving a high and low larval density (HD and LD), BFM and larval standard food (LSF) affected differently larval development. At HD, development was longer in the BFM environment. There were no appreciable mortality differences between the two treatments, which resulted in similar pupation and adult emergence successes. BFM treatment produced a better gender balance. There were comparable levels of blood uptake and egg production in BFM and LSF females at LD; that was not the case for the HD one, which resulted in bigger adults. BFM and LSF females displayed equivalent lifespans; in males, this parameter was shorter in those derived from the BFM/LD treatment. Taken together these results suggest that bird defecations successfully support the development of Ae. albopictus. Due to their cryptic aspects, containers used to supply water to encaged birds may not have been targeted by chemical interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.Acta tropica. 01/2015;