Indigenous chicken production in South-east Asia
ABSTRACT The poultry industry of South-east Asia has two important types of production. These are: a commercial sector, characterized by its use of highly intensive units and the fact that it has developed very rapidly over the past two decades; and the traditional village-based system which has been little affected by the increasing numbers of commercial birds. The village poultry system relies on minimal resource input and, although secondary to other agricultural activities, has an important role in providing the local population with income and high quality protein. Almost every rural community keeps small flocks of indigenous chickens under a backyard type system. The sheds, when provided, are made from local materials. Whilst the birds are fed kitchen left-overs, sometimes supplemented with cheap, locally available grains, most of their time is spent scavenging. There is no breeding programme and close inbreeding occurs among the indigenous stocks. The high incidence of disease is the greatest constraint on rural poultry development.
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ABSTRACT: Characterizing local chicken types and their mostly rural production systems is prerequisite for designing and implementing development and conservation programs. This study evaluated the management practices of small-scale chicken keepers and the phenotypic and production traits of their chickens in Oman, where conservation programs for local livestock breeds have currently started. Free-range scavenging was the dominant production system, and logistic regression analysis showed that socio-economic factors such as training in poultry keeping, household income, income from farming and gender of chicken owners influenced feeding, housing, and health care practices (p<0.05). A large variation in plumage and shank colors, comb types and other phenotypic traits within and between Omani chicken populations were observed. Male and female body weight differed (p<0.05), being 1.30.65 kg and 1.10.86 kg respectively. Flock size averaged 227.7 birds per household with 4.8 hens per cock. Clutch size was 12.32.85 and annual production 64.52.85 eggs per hen. Egg hatchability averaged 886.0% and annual chicken mortality across all age and sex categories was 161.4%. The strong involvement of women in chicken keeping makes them key stakeholders in future development and conservation programs, but the latter should be preceded by a comprehensive study of the genetic diversity of the Omani chicken populations. (Key Words: Animal Genetic Resources, Egg Production, Rural Smallholders, Scavenging System, Task Division)Asian Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 01/2014; 27(6):767-777. · 0.64 Impact Factor
- African journal of microbiology research 01/2013; · 0.54 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To identify the unusual breeding sites of two dengue vectors, i.e. Aedes albopictus (Ae. albopictus) and Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti). During the second half of 2010, we performed an occasional survey in rural (Teluk Tempoyak) and urban (Gelugor) areas of Penang Island, Malaysia, to identify cryptic breeding sites. In the rural area, we found heterogeneous immature stages of Ae. albopictus in the water bowl of an encaged bird. We also observed Ae. aegypti eggs deposited in the flush tank of a toilet in the urban area. It can be concluded that both breeding patterns can increase contact with hosts (humans and birds) and presumably population densities of Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti, thereby potentially boosting the risks for spread and transmission of arboviral diseases.Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine 03/2012; 2(3):228-32.