Indigenous chicken production in South-east Asia

World's Poultry Science Journal (Impact Factor: 1.09). 02/1990; 46(01):51 - 57. DOI: 10.1079/WPS19900010

ABSTRACT The poultry industry of South-east Asia has two important types of production. These are: a commercial sector, characterized by its use of highly intensive units and the fact that it has developed very rapidly over the past two decades; and the traditional village-based system which has been little affected by the increasing numbers of commercial birds. The village poultry system relies on minimal resource input and, although secondary to other agricultural activities, has an important role in providing the local population with income and high quality protein. Almost every rural community keeps small flocks of indigenous chickens under a backyard type system. The sheds, when provided, are made from local materials. Whilst the birds are fed kitchen left-overs, sometimes supplemented with cheap, locally available grains, most of their time is spent scavenging. There is no breeding programme and close inbreeding occurs among the indigenous stocks. The high incidence of disease is the greatest constraint on rural poultry development.

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    • "Scavenging systems and low input into feeding, housing and labor as well as adaptation to diseases, absence of veterinary services and poor management (Hall, 1986) are considered as the main characteristics of local chicken production systems in tropical and subtropical countries (Aini, 1990; Gueye, 2000). A considerable phenotypic variation is another main characteristic of local chicken types throughout the world (Mcainsh et al., 2004). "
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    ABSTRACT: Characterizing local chicken types and their mostly rural production systems is prerequisite for designing and implementing development and conservation programs. This study evaluated the management practices of small-scale chicken keepers and the phenotypic and production traits of their chickens in Oman, where conservation programs for local livestock breeds have currently started. Free-range scavenging was the dominant production system, and logistic regression analysis showed that socio-economic factors such as training in poultry keeping, household income, income from farming and gender of chicken owners influenced feeding, housing, and health care practices (p<0.05). A large variation in plumage and shank colors, comb types and other phenotypic traits within and between Omani chicken populations were observed. Male and female body weight differed (p<0.05), being 1.30.65 kg and 1.10.86 kg respectively. Flock size averaged 227.7 birds per household with 4.8 hens per cock. Clutch size was 12.32.85 and annual production 64.52.85 eggs per hen. Egg hatchability averaged 886.0% and annual chicken mortality across all age and sex categories was 161.4%. The strong involvement of women in chicken keeping makes them key stakeholders in future development and conservation programs, but the latter should be preceded by a comprehensive study of the genetic diversity of the Omani chicken populations. (Key Words: Animal Genetic Resources, Egg Production, Rural Smallholders, Scavenging System, Task Division)
    Asian Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 06/2014; 27(6):767-777. DOI:10.5713/ajas.2013.13541 · 0.54 Impact Factor
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    • "A follow-up study by Biswas and Gilbert showed a higher risk of infection in backyard farming and free range breeding, and infected migratory birds and water containing the virus may have infected poultry (Biswas et al., 2009; Gilbert et al., 2006). According to statistics , about 80% of poultry production is by backyard farming in Asian and African countries (Aini, 1990; Permin et al., 2002). Through 2005, there were 140 million birds infected with the H5N1 virus, resulting in about a $10 billion loss in Asian countries (Gilbert et al., 2008; Food and Agriculture Organization, 2005). "
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    ABSTRACT: Global change, which refers to large-scale changes in the earth system and human society, has been changing the outbreak and transmission mode of many infectious diseases. Climate change affects infectious diseases directly and indirectly. Meteorological factors including temperature, precipitation, humidity and radiation influence infectious disease by modulating pathogen, host and transmission pathways. Meteorological disasters such as droughts and floods directly impact the outbreak and transmission of infectious diseases. Climate change indirectly impacts infectious diseases by altering the ecological system, including its underlying surface and vegetation distribution. In addition, anthropogenic activities are a driving force for climate change and an indirect forcing of infectious disease transmission. International travel and rural-urban migration are a root cause of infectious disease transmission. Rapid urbanization along with poor infrastructure and high disease risk in the rural-urban fringe has been changing the pattern of disease outbreaks and mortality. Land use changes, such as agricultural expansion and deforestation, have already changed the transmission of infectious disease. Accelerated air, road and rail transportation development may not only increase the transmission speed of outbreaks, but also enlarge the scope of transmission area. In addition, more frequent trade and other economic activities will also increase the potential risks of disease outbreaks and facilitate the spread of infectious diseases.
    Science China Earth Science 02/2013; 57(2). DOI:10.1007/s11430-013-4635-0 · 1.49 Impact Factor
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    • "ND is present in many countries of the world and in tropical and subtropical countries, virulent strains of the virus are endemic (Spradbrow, 1990). In most developing countries, ND ranked as the most important poultry disease affecting the poultry population with consequent great economic losses (Aini, 1990; Martin, 1992). In recent years, poultry keeping and production has become a growing and prospective industry in Nigeria. "
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