Predisposing Factors and Situational Triggers: Exclusionary Reactions to Immigrant Minorities
ABSTRACT This paper examines the bases of opposition to immigrant minorities in Western Europe, focusing on The Netherlands. The specific aim of this study is to test the validity of predictions derived from two theories—realistic conflict, which emphasizes considerations of economic well-being, and social identity, which emphasizes considerations of identity based on group membership. The larger aim of this study is to investigate the interplay of predisposing factors and situational triggers in evoking political responses. The analysis is based on a series of three experiments embedded in a public opinion survey carried out in The Netherlands (n=2007) in 1997–98. The experiments, combined with parallel individual-level measures, allow measurement of the comparative impact of both dispositionally based and situationally triggered threats to economic well-being and to national identity at work. The results show, first, that considerations of national identity dominate those of economic advantage in evoking exclusionary reactions to immigrant minorities and, second, that the effect of situational triggers is to mobilize support for exclusionary policies above and beyond the core constituency already predisposed to support them.
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ABSTRACT: the minimal effects of self-interest / racial issues / economic issues / crime and war / pocketbook voting / information when does self-interest work / clear, substantial costs and benefits / ambiguous severe threats / politicizing self-interest the narrowness of self-interest effects / self-interest and symbolic predispositions / four specific cases / can broad self-interest effects be induced why doesn't self-interest usually work / the stakes are usually neither large nor clear / attributions of government responsibility symbolic politics / public regardingness / reflexive affective responses to political symbols (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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ABSTRACT: Interest in the concept of identity has grown exponentially within both the humanities and social sciences, but the discussion of identity has had less impact than might be expected on the quantitative study of political behavior in general and on political psychology more specifically. One of the approaches that holds the most promise for political psychologists is social identity theory, as reflected in the thinking of Henri Tajfel, John Turner, and colleagues. Although the theory addresses the kinds of problems of interest to political psychologists, it has had limited impact on political psychology because of social identity theorists' disinclination to examine the sources of social identity in a real world complicated by history and culture. In this review, four key issues are examined that hinder the successful application of social identity theory to political phenomena. These key issues are the existence of identity choice, the subjective meaning of identities, gradations in identity strength, and the considerable stability of many social and political identities.Political Psychology 02/2001; 22(1):127 - 156. · 1.71 Impact Factor
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