Growth failure and outcome in Rett syndrome Specific growth references

and University of Alabama at Birmingham (S.G., J.L., A.K.P.).
Neurology (Impact Factor: 8.3). 10/2012; 79(16):1653-61. DOI: 10.1212/WNL.0b013e31826e9a70
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Prominent growth failure typifies Rett syndrome (RTT). Our aims were to 1) develop RTT growth charts for clinical and research settings, 2) compare growth in children with RTT with that of unaffected children, and 3) compare growth patterns among RTT genotypes and phenotypes.
A cohort of the RTT Rare Diseases Clinical Research Network observational study participants was recruited, and cross-sectional and longitudinal growth data and comprehensive clinical information were collected. A reliability study confirmed interobserver consistency. Reference curves for height, weight, head circumference, and body mass index (BMI), generated using a semiparametric model with goodness-of-fit tests, were compared with normative values using Student's t test adjusted for multiple comparisons. Genotype and phenotype subgroups were compared using analysis of variance and linear regression.
Growth charts for classic and atypical RTT were created from 9,749 observations of 816 female participants. Mean growth in classic RTT decreased below that for the normative population at 1 month for head circumference, 6 months for weight, and 17 months for length. Mean BMI was similar in those with RTT and the normative population. Pubertal increases in height and weight were absent in classic RTT. Classic RTT was associated with more growth failure than atypical RTT. In classic RTT, poor growth was associated with worse development, higher disease severity, and certain MECP2 mutations (pre-C-terminal truncation, large deletion, T158M, R168X, R255X, and R270X).
RTT-specific growth references will allow effective screening for disease and treatment monitoring. Growth failure occurs less frequently in girls with RTT with better development, less morbidity typically associated with RTT, and late truncation mutations.

Download full-text


Available from: Daniel Tarquinio, Jul 28, 2015
  • Source
    • "Respiratory dysfunction on a clinical basis was categorized based on the corresponding Percy scale item (+ as minimal hyperventilation and/or apnea; ++ as intermittent hyperventilation and/or apnea; and +++ as hyperventilation and/or apnea with cyanosis) [41]. The corresponding í µí± §-scores for body weight, height, head circumference, and body mass index were calculated on the basis of validated RTT-specific growth charts [42]. Clinical stages distribution was: stage I (í µí±› = 4), stage II (í µí±› = 69), stage III (í µí±› = 92), and stage IV (í µí±› = 63). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Rett syndrome (RTT) is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder mainly linked to mutations in the gene encoding the methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2). Respiratory dysfunction, historically credited to brainstem immaturity, represents a major challenge in RTT. Our aim was to characterize the relationships between pulmonary gas exchange abnormality (GEA), upper airway obstruction, and redox status in patients with typical RTT (n = 228) and to examine lung histology in a Mecp2-null mouse model of the disease. GEA was detectable in ~80% (184/228) of patients versus ~18% of healthy controls, with "high" (39.8%) and "low" (34.8%) patterns dominating over "mixed" (19.6%) and "simple mismatch" (5.9%) types. Increased plasma levels of non-protein-bound iron (NPBI), F2-isoprostanes (F2-IsoPs), intraerythrocyte NPBI (IE-NPBI), and reduced and oxidized glutathione (i.e., GSH and GSSG) were evidenced in RTT with consequently decreased GSH/GSSG ratios. Apnea frequency/severity was positively correlated with IE-NPBI, F2-IsoPs, and GSSG and negatively with GSH/GSSG ratio. A diffuse inflammatory infiltrate of the terminal bronchioles and alveoli was evidenced in half of the examined Mecp2-mutant mice, well fitting with the radiological findings previously observed in RTT patients. Our findings indicate that GEA is a key feature of RTT and that terminal bronchioles are a likely major target of the disease.
    Mediators of Inflammation 03/2014; 2014:560120. DOI:10.1155/2014/560120 · 3.24 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "In this study, a total of 66 RTT patients (mean age 12.7 ± 9.1 years) with typical presentation and demonstrated MeCP2 mutation were enrolled (Table 1) [27]. RTT diagnosis and inclusion/exclusion criteria were based on the recently revised RTT nomenclature consensus [28] [29]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Rett syndrome (RTT) is a devastating neurodevelopmental disorder with a 300-fold increased risk rate for sudden cardiac death. A subclinical myocardial biventricular dysfunction has been recently reported in RTT by our group and found to be associated with an enhanced oxidative stress (OS) status. Here, we tested the effects of the naturally occurring antioxidants ω -3 polyunsaturated fatty acids ( ω -3 PUFAs) on echocardiographic parameters and systemic OS markers in a population of RTT patients with the typical clinical form. A total of 66 RTT girls were evaluated, half of whom being treated for 12 months with a dietary supplementation of ω -3 PUFAs at high dosage (docosahexaenoic acid ~71.9 ± 13.9 mg/kg b.w./day plus eicosapentaenoic acid ~115.5 ± 22.4 mg/kg b.w./day) versus the remaining half untreated population. Echocardiographic systolic longitudinal parameters of both ventricles, but not biventricular diastolic measures, improved following ω -3 PUFAs supplementation, with a parallel decrease in the OS markers levels. No significant changes in the examined echocardiographic parameters nor in the OS markers were detectable in the untreated RTT population. Our data indicate that ω -3 PUFAs are able to improve the biventricular myocardial systolic function in RTT and that this functional gain is partially mediated through a regulation of the redox balance.
    Mediators of Inflammation 01/2014; 2014:983178. DOI:10.1155/2014/983178 · 3.24 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "Most individuals with RTT have scoliosis, and some require surgical intervention (Percy et al., 2010). Nutrition and gastrointestinal function are also major clinical issues in RTT, and there is marked growth failure in most affected individuals (Tarquinio et al., 2012). It has long been recognized that head growth is impaired, resulting in acquired microcephaly (Hagberg et al., 1983), and height and weight are usually markedly diminished (Schultz et al., 1993). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In September of 2011, the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), the International Rett Syndrome Foundation (IRSF) and the Rett Syndrome Research Trust (RSRT) convened a workshop involving a broad cross-section of basic scientists, clinicians and representatives from the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the pharmaceutical industry and private foundations to assess the state of the art in animal studies of Rett syndrome (RTT). The aim of the workshop was to identify crucial knowledge gaps and to suggest scientific priorities and best practices for the use of animal models in preclinical evaluation of potential new RTT therapeutics. This review summarizes outcomes from the workshop and extensive follow-up discussions among participants, and includes: (1) a comprehensive summary of the physiological and behavioral phenotypes of RTT mouse models to date, and areas in which further phenotypic analyses are required to enhance the utility of these models for translational studies; (2) discussion of the impact of genetic differences among mouse models, and methodological differences among laboratories, on the expression and analysis, respectively, of phenotypic traits; and (3) definitions of the standards that the community of RTT researchers can implement for rigorous preclinical study design and transparent reporting to ensure that decisions to initiate costly clinical trials are grounded in reliable preclinical data.
    Disease Models and Mechanisms 11/2012; 5(6):733-45. DOI:10.1242/dmm.011007 · 5.54 Impact Factor
Show more