Correlation between viral load, plasma levels of CD4–CD8 T lymphocytes and AIDS-related oral diseases: a multicentre study on 30 HIV + children in the HAART era

Dipartimento di Chirurgia Sezione di Odontostomatologia, Università di Pisa, Italy.
Journal of biological regulators and homeostatic agents (Impact Factor: 2.04). 07/2012; 26(3):527-37.
Source: PubMed


This experimental retrospective multicenter study carried out on 30 seropositive children treated with Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART), between the ages of 18 months and 14 years, in the clinical categories Centers for Disease Control (CDC) classification 1993 A (mildly symptomatic), B (moderately symptomatic) and C (severely symptomatic) aims to: 1) clinically and immunologically demonstrate the therapeutic benefits of HAART; 2) monitor the frequency of AIDS-related oral diseases in seropositive children with HAART therapy; 3) monitor the plasma levels of total CD4, CD4 percent, CD8 percent, CD4-CD8 lymphocytes and viral load from 1997 to 30 April, 2011. The statistic methods used are the analysis of covariance and the Bonferroni Test. More than 100 AIDS-related oral diseases were found in the study samples, the most frequent being: oral candidiasis, oropharyngeal candidiasis, HSV-1 herpetic esophagyitis, herpetic gingivolstomatitis (RHOG), recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS), parotid swelling, oral hairy leukoplakia (OHL), Herpes simplex 1 (HSV-1), linear gingival erythema (LGE), necrotizing gingivitis (NUG), facial lipodistrophy, facial-cervical lymphadenopathy (FCL), xerostomia, dysgeusia, hyposmia, oral mucosa hyperpigmentation (OMP). The Bonferroni test showed a significant difference between the mean plasma values (mpVTL) of total CD4, CD4 percentage, CD4-CD8 T lymphocytes and Viral Load (VL) of the various oral diseases found in the study samples. The therapeutic benefits of HAART are: immune reconstitution; reduction of the HIV/AIDS-related stomatology diseases; prevention and cure of the AIDS correlated neoplasias; reduction in maternal-fetal transmission of the HIV virus. The negative effects of HAART in relation to odontostomatolgy are: increase in oral lesions from HPV; xerostomia; dysgeusia/ageusia, hyposmia, perioral paresthesia; hyperpigmentation of oral mucosa; facial lipodystrophy, recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS). No case of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome or human papillomavirus (HPV)-related oral diseases were found in this study.

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    • "The coincidence of aphthae with inflammatory bowel diseases and celiac disease may also be related with autoimmune reactions, assumed as a background of all the mentioned conditions (Woźniak-Stolarska et al. 2003). Aphthae were also a frequent finding in HIV-infected persons, who manifested the disproportion of CD4 and CD8 lymphocytes together with decreased neutrophil count (MacPhail et al. 1991; Miziara et al. 2005; Muzyka and Glick 1994; Nesti et al. 2012). "
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    ABSTRACT: Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS; recurrent aphthous ulcers; canker sores) belongs to the group of chronic, inflammatory, ulcerative diseases of the oral mucosa. Up to now, the etiopathogenesis of this condition remains unclear; it is, however, considered to be multifactorial. The results of currently performed studies indicate that genetically mediated disturbances of the innate and acquired immunity play an important role in the disease development. Factors that modify the immunologic response in RAS include: food allergies, vitamin and microelement deficiencies, hormonal and gastrointestinal disorders (e.g., celiac disease, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis), some viral and bacterial infections, mechanical injuries and stress. In this paper, we presented the main etiopathogenetic factors of RAS with a special emphasis on the mechanisms of the immune response modification. Moreover, we discussed the crucial clinical symptoms and types of RAS together with epidemiologic data based on the current medical literature reports and our own observations.
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