Nerve growth factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor concentrations in schizophrenia: a review.
ABSTRACT There is growing interest in the role of neurotrophins in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Neurotrophins are a large family of dimeric polypeptides that promote the growth and the differentiation of developing neurons in the central and peripheral nervous systems as well as the survival of neuronal cells in response to stress. Nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) concentrations are here reviewed in relation to medication-naive early psychotic patients and in medicated chronic schizophrenic patients. Most data point to decreased plasma and serum NGF and BDNF concentrations in naive drug and in medicated schizophrenic patients compared to healthy controls. Higher BDNF levels were observed in patients with the paranoid subtype of schizophrenia. Low serum BDNF levels were associated with reduction in hippocampal volume (HV) at the onset of schizophrenia. Evidence on the correlation between BDNF levels and positive and negative schizophrenic symptoms were ambiguous. There are contrasting results on a possible correlation between increase in BDNF concentrations and treatment with antipsychotics. Antipsychotic treatment can elevate NGF values, specifically atypical. Growth factors might be good candidates as prognostically and diagnostically useful markers in schizophrenia.
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ABSTRACT: Increasing evidence suggests that Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis is not restricted to the neuronal compartment, but includes strong interactions with immunological mechanisms in the brain. Misfolded and aggregated proteins bind to pattern recognition receptors on microglia and astroglia, and trigger an innate immune response characterised by release of inflammatory mediators, which contribute to disease progression and severity. Genome-wide analysis suggests that several genes that increase the risk for sporadic Alzheimer's disease encode factors that regulate glial clearance of misfolded proteins and the inflammatory reaction. External factors, including systemic inflammation and obesity, are likely to interfere with immunological processes of the brain and further promote disease progression. Modulation of risk factors and targeting of these immune mechanisms could lead to future therapeutic or preventive strategies for Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.The Lancet Neurology 04/2015; 14(4):388-405. DOI:10.1016/S1474-4422(15)70016-5 · 21.82 Impact Factor
Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment 04/2015; · 2.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Agomelatine, a melatonergic antidepressant with a rapid onset of action, is one of the most recent drugs in the antidepressant category. Agomelatine’s antidepressant actions are attributed to its sleep-promoting and chronobiotic actions mediated by MT1 and MT2 receptors present in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, as well as to its effects on the blockade of 5-HT2c receptors. Blockade of 5-HT2c receptors causes release of both noradrenaline and dopamine at the fronto-cortical dopaminergic and noradrenergic pathways. The combined actions of agomelatine on MT1/MT2 and 5-HT2c receptors facilitate the resynchronization of altered circadian rhythms and abnormal sleep patterns. Agomelatine appeared to be effective in treating major depression. Moreover, evidence exists that points out a possible efficacy of such drug in the treatment of bipolar depression, anxiety disorders, alcohol dependence, migraines etc. Thus, the aim of this narrative review was to elucidate current evidences on the role of agomelatine in disorders other than major depression.International Journal of Molecular Sciences 01/2015; 16(1):1111-1130. DOI:10.3390/ijms16011111 · 2.34 Impact Factor