Antioxidant activity and protecting health effects of common medicinal plants.

Department of Food Analysis and Chemistry, Faculty of Technology, Tomas Bata University in Zlín, Zlín, Czech Republic. Electronic address: .
Advances in food and nutrition research 01/2012; 67:75-139. DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-12-394598-3.00003-4
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Medicinal plants are traditionally used in folk medicine as natural healing remedies with therapeutic effects such as prevention of cardiovascular diseases, inflammation disorders, or reducing the risk of cancer. In addition, pharmacological industry utilizes medicinal plants due to the presence of active chemical substances as agents for drug synthesis. They are valuable also for food and cosmetic industry as additives, due to their preservative effects because of the presence of antioxidants and antimicrobial constituents. To commonly used medicinal plants with antioxidant activity known worldwide belong plants from several families, especially Lamiaceae (rosemary, sage, oregano, marjoram, basil, thyme, mints, balm), Apiaceae (cumin, fennel, caraway), and Zingiberaceae (turmeric, ginger). The antioxidant properties of medicinal plants depend on the plant, its variety, environmental conditions, climatic and seasonal variations, geographical regions of growth, degree of ripeness, growing practices, and many other factors such as postharvest treatment and processing. In addition, composition and concentration of present antioxidants, such as phenolic compounds, are related to antioxidant effect. For appropriate determination of antioxidant capacity, the extraction technique, its conditions, solvent used, and particular assay methodology are important.

Download full-text


Available from: Soňa Škrovánková, May 19, 2015
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the in vitro antioxidant potential of two varieties of Codiaeum variegatum leaves (spiral (CP) and royal like (BP)) extracts. The different antioxidant assays, including DPPH free radical scavenging, nitric oxide scavenging, hydrogen peroxide, reducing power, total antioxidant activity, protection of lipid peroxidation and RBC membrane stabilization activity, were studied. Moreover, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with diode-array detection was used to identify and quantify the phenolic compounds in the royal like (BP) leaves extract. Codiaeum variegatum extracts showed effective DPPH free radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging and nitric oxide scavenging activity. However, reducing power of ferric ion was not significant compared to the standard antioxidant activity. In addition, Codiaeum variegatum extracts exhibited protection against lipid peroxidation. The total antioxidant activity was increased dose dependently when compared with standard drug ascorbic acid. (-)-Epicatechin, p-coumaric acid, rutin hydrate and ellagic acid were identified in the extract. Among the phenolic compounds, ellagic acid was abundantly present in the extract. Our investigation suggests that Codiaeum variegatum leaves contain high amount of phenolic compounds which may responsible for its biological activities in folkloric medicine.
    Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin 06/2014; DOI:10.5681/apb.2015.017 · 0.88 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Turmeric (Curcuma longa) grown in Jamaica was studied for its naturally occurring linear diarylheptanoid compounds namely curcumin, Bis-Demethoxy Curcumin (BDMC), Demethoxy Curucmin (DMC) and for its antioxidant activity. Evaluations were conducted on the basis of whether or not there were any potential effects of blanching, harvest time and location of growth on the quantity and quality of turmeric oleoresins. The highest antioxidant activity of 92.86% was obtained from turmeric rhizomes grown in the parish of Hanover while the highest turmeric oleoresin yields of 14.87% were obtained from the 15 minute blanched-treated turmeric rhizomes. With a new analog-selective RP-HPLC method, the curcumin, DMC, and BDMC were qualified and quantified. It was found that the highest yield of curcumin content of 22.69% was obtained from the 15 minute ‘blanched’ samples grown in the parish of Hanover from the 1st harvest period of the study. An analytical method validation with linear equations and correlation of regressions of R2=0.9991, R2=0.999.3, R2=0.9998 and R2=0.9992 for inter-day precision analyses were performed to validate the HPLC method.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Plants from the genus Ocimum are used as folk medicine for treating various diseases including inflammatory and immune-related diseases. Numerous reports have suggested plant extracts and their constituents as possible anti-inflammatory agents. Here, in vitro evidence of Ocimum labiatum's immune-enhancing and antioxidant properties is presented for the first time. The anti-inflammatory effect of O. labiatum ethanolic extract and an isolated diterpenoid was determined using a cytometric bead array (CBA) technique. The effect on phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was also assessed. A battery of antioxidant assays were used for detecting antioxidant activity while the anti-inflammatory mechanism was evaluated using an ELISA-based activator protein (AP-1) (c-Jun) assay. Cytotoxicity was determined on TZM-bl and PBMCs using a tetrazolium dye and confirmed by a novel label-free real-time assay. A 25 μg/mL non-cytotoxic concentration of O. labiatum extract significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines; IL-2, IL-4, IL-6 and IL-17A. Except for the dual acting pro- or anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-6, which was upregulated, a non-cytotoxic 50 μM concentration of the isolated labdane diterpenoid compound significantly (p < 0.05) decreased the production of all the pro-inflammatory cytokines. In the anti-inflammatory pathway studies, the compound also inhibited AP-1 significantly (p < 0.05) at 50 μM. The extract demonstrated strong, dose dependent antioxidant activity with IC50 values ranging from 13 ± 0.8 to 54.86 ± 1.28 μg/mL while the terpene had no antioxidant property. The extract and diterpenoid decreased the production of the inflammatory mediator NO, at non-cytotoxic concentrations. The CC50 of the extract in TZM-bl and PBMCs was 62.6 ± 0.6 and 30.1 ± 0.4 μg/mL while that of the compound was 112.6 ± 0.2 and 70 ± 0.4 μM respectively. The real time studies confirmed tetrazolium dye assessed viability and also detected a unique growth pattern for the plant materials compared to untreated cells. O. labiatum extract demonstrated promising anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties while the terpenoid showed anti-inflammatory but no antioxidant activity. The anti-inflammatory mechanism of the terpene was a result of inhibition of AP-1. These data represents promising first steps towards the development of naturally derived anti-inflammation drugs.
    Journal of Inflammation 12/2015; 12(1):4. DOI:10.1186/s12950-015-0049-4 · 2.22 Impact Factor