Antioxidant activity and protecting health effects of common medicinal plants.
ABSTRACT Medicinal plants are traditionally used in folk medicine as natural healing remedies with therapeutic effects such as prevention of cardiovascular diseases, inflammation disorders, or reducing the risk of cancer. In addition, pharmacological industry utilizes medicinal plants due to the presence of active chemical substances as agents for drug synthesis. They are valuable also for food and cosmetic industry as additives, due to their preservative effects because of the presence of antioxidants and antimicrobial constituents. To commonly used medicinal plants with antioxidant activity known worldwide belong plants from several families, especially Lamiaceae (rosemary, sage, oregano, marjoram, basil, thyme, mints, balm), Apiaceae (cumin, fennel, caraway), and Zingiberaceae (turmeric, ginger). The antioxidant properties of medicinal plants depend on the plant, its variety, environmental conditions, climatic and seasonal variations, geographical regions of growth, degree of ripeness, growing practices, and many other factors such as postharvest treatment and processing. In addition, composition and concentration of present antioxidants, such as phenolic compounds, are related to antioxidant effect. For appropriate determination of antioxidant capacity, the extraction technique, its conditions, solvent used, and particular assay methodology are important.
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ABSTRACT: Cuphea aequipetala (Lythraceae) is a medicinal plant highly appreciated in Mexico to treat, stomach ailments such as pain and burning sensation, stomach infections, ulcers, diarrhea, dysentery, and different types of tumors and bruises. In this work, the infusion of aerial parts of this plant (CAI) was investigated for its polypharmacological potential. In vitro anti-H. pylori activity was assessed by broth dilution method. Pharmacological studies included acute toxicity in mice using Lorke´s model, anti-inflammatory activity by xylene and TPA induced ear edema assay, as well as gastroprotection with ethanol-induced gastric ulcer model. DPPH and ABTS assays were used to determine antioxidant capacity. Polyphenols and flavonoid contents were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu method and AlCl3 reaction, respectively. CAI showed good anti-H. pylori activity with a MIC of 125μg/mL. The infusion was not toxic according to Lorke´s model with a LD50 greater than 5g/kg. CAI exhibited low anti-edematogenic action in the models assayed. Oral administration of 300mg/kg CAI significantly reduced gastric lesions by 87.9%. The effect was reversed only by indomethacin and N-ethylmaleimide demonstrating the role of endogenous prostaglandins and sulfhydryl compounds in gastroprotection. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents of CAI were 109.9mg GAE/g DW and 28.1mg QE/g DW, respectively, and the infusion exhibited a good antioxidant activity that is thought to play a role in its biological activity. The analysis of a preliminary fractionation of the infusion indicates that the complete extract conserves all its pharmacological activities in contrast to fractionated extracts. C. aequipetala is a promising native herb in an integral therapy for the treatment of bacterial or non-bacterial gastric ulcer because it possesses some anti-inflammatory properties, as well as exhibits good gastroprotective and antibacterial effects. It represents an important source for the isolation of anti-H. pylori compounds. This work provides ethnopharmacological evidence that supports the traditional use of this species.Journal of ethnopharmacology 12/2013; · 2.32 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Context: Melia azedarach Linn (Meliaceae) is an Ayurvedic medicinal plant which is native to India. It is traditionally used for the treatment of leprosy, inflammation, scrofula, anthelmintic, antilithic, diuretic, deobstruent and cardiac disorders. Objective: To evaluate the phytochemical constituents and antioxidant activities of the ethanol leaf extract of Melia azedarach (MA) and its protective effect against H2O2-induced cellular damage in cultured lymphocytes. Materials and methods: The dose-dependent study of MA (20, 40, 60, 80, 100 µg/ml) was used to study in vitro radical scavenging assays. The effective dose of MA (60 µg/ml) was further used to study the H2O2-induced DNA damage (comet assay and DNA fragmentation assay) in cultured lymphocytes. Results: The ethanol extract of MA (20, 40, 60, 80, 100 µg/ml) exhibited a significant dose-dependent inhibition of in vitro radical scavenging assays and their corresponding IC50 values as follows: hydroxyl radical (26.50 ± 0.26 µg/ml), superoxide anion (30.00 ± 0.32 µg/ml), nitric oxide radical (48.00 ± 0.48 µg/ml), DPPH radical (30.55 ± 0.32 µg/ml) and reducing power (22.00 ± 0.22 µg/ml). The increase in the severity of DNA damage and TBARS was increased significantly (p < 0.05) at 500 µM H2O2-treated cultured lymphocytes and RBC cellular membranes. The phytochemical screening studies identified 13 chemical constituents present in the leaf extract of MA. Discussion and conclusion: The results of this study demonstrate that MA offers protection against H2O2-induced cellular damage and it can be developed as an effective antioxidant during oxidative stress.Pharmaceutical Biology 06/2013; · 1.21 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Rosa chinensis 'Pallida' (Rosa L.) is one of the most important ancient rose cultivars originating from China. It contributed the 'tea scent' trait to modern roses. However, little information is available on the gene regulatory networks involved in scent biosynthesis and metabolism in Rosa. In this study, the transcriptome of R. chinensis 'Pallida' petals at different developmental stages, from flower buds to senescent flowers, was investigated using Illumina sequencing technology. De novo assembly generated 89,614 clusters with an average length of 428bp. Based on sequence similarity search with known proteins, 62.9% of total clusters were annotated. Out of these annotated transcripts, 25,705 and 37,159 sequences were assigned to gene ontology and clusters of orthologous groups, respectively. The dataset provides information on transcripts putatively associated with known scent metabolic pathways. Digital gene expression (DGE) was obtained using RNA samples from flower bud, open flower and senescent flower stages. Comparative DGE and quantitative real time PCR permitted the identification of five transcripts encoding proteins putatively associated with scent biosynthesis in roses. The study provides a foundation for scent-related gene discovery in roses.Gene 02/2014; · 2.20 Impact Factor