Antioxidant activity and protecting health effects of common medicinal plants.
ABSTRACT Medicinal plants are traditionally used in folk medicine as natural healing remedies with therapeutic effects such as prevention of cardiovascular diseases, inflammation disorders, or reducing the risk of cancer. In addition, pharmacological industry utilizes medicinal plants due to the presence of active chemical substances as agents for drug synthesis. They are valuable also for food and cosmetic industry as additives, due to their preservative effects because of the presence of antioxidants and antimicrobial constituents. To commonly used medicinal plants with antioxidant activity known worldwide belong plants from several families, especially Lamiaceae (rosemary, sage, oregano, marjoram, basil, thyme, mints, balm), Apiaceae (cumin, fennel, caraway), and Zingiberaceae (turmeric, ginger). The antioxidant properties of medicinal plants depend on the plant, its variety, environmental conditions, climatic and seasonal variations, geographical regions of growth, degree of ripeness, growing practices, and many other factors such as postharvest treatment and processing. In addition, composition and concentration of present antioxidants, such as phenolic compounds, are related to antioxidant effect. For appropriate determination of antioxidant capacity, the extraction technique, its conditions, solvent used, and particular assay methodology are important.
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ABSTRACT: Plants from the genus Ocimum are used as folk medicine for treating various diseases including inflammatory and immune-related diseases. Numerous reports have suggested plant extracts and their constituents as possible anti-inflammatory agents. Here, in vitro evidence of Ocimum labiatum's immune-enhancing and antioxidant properties is presented for the first time. The anti-inflammatory effect of O. labiatum ethanolic extract and an isolated diterpenoid was determined using a cytometric bead array (CBA) technique. The effect on phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was also assessed. A battery of antioxidant assays were used for detecting antioxidant activity while the anti-inflammatory mechanism was evaluated using an ELISA-based activator protein (AP-1) (c-Jun) assay. Cytotoxicity was determined on TZM-bl and PBMCs using a tetrazolium dye and confirmed by a novel label-free real-time assay. A 25 μg/mL non-cytotoxic concentration of O. labiatum extract significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines; IL-2, IL-4, IL-6 and IL-17A. Except for the dual acting pro- or anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-6, which was upregulated, a non-cytotoxic 50 μM concentration of the isolated labdane diterpenoid compound significantly (p < 0.05) decreased the production of all the pro-inflammatory cytokines. In the anti-inflammatory pathway studies, the compound also inhibited AP-1 significantly (p < 0.05) at 50 μM. The extract demonstrated strong, dose dependent antioxidant activity with IC50 values ranging from 13 ± 0.8 to 54.86 ± 1.28 μg/mL while the terpene had no antioxidant property. The extract and diterpenoid decreased the production of the inflammatory mediator NO, at non-cytotoxic concentrations. The CC50 of the extract in TZM-bl and PBMCs was 62.6 ± 0.6 and 30.1 ± 0.4 μg/mL while that of the compound was 112.6 ± 0.2 and 70 ± 0.4 μM respectively. The real time studies confirmed tetrazolium dye assessed viability and also detected a unique growth pattern for the plant materials compared to untreated cells. O. labiatum extract demonstrated promising anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties while the terpenoid showed anti-inflammatory but no antioxidant activity. The anti-inflammatory mechanism of the terpene was a result of inhibition of AP-1. These data represents promising first steps towards the development of naturally derived anti-inflammation drugs.Journal of inflammation (London, England). 01/2015; 12:4.
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ABSTRACT: Medicago sativa Linn growing in Omani desert were chemically characterised using flame photometry, inductively coupled plasma, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analysis. HPLC analyses were performed to determine the phenolics and flavonoids present in M. sativa. The major compounds detected in M. sativa leaves were protchaechenic acid (3.22%), hydroxyl benzoic acid (1.05%), β-Phenyl caffate (0.97%) and kaempherol (0.89%). Pterostilbene, a cholesterol-lowering compound, was detected in M. sativa.Natural product research. 02/2015;
- Natural Product Research 02/2015; · 1.23 Impact Factor