Clinical problem-solving. An intricate interplay.
ABSTRACT A 55-year-old man presented with sinus congestion, headaches, chills, mild nausea, fatigue, and a "foggy" sensation that had lasted approximately 1 week. He reported darker urine than usual and had noticed that his eyes were turning yellow.
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ABSTRACT: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is among the most common causes of chronic liver disease in the western world. It is now recognized that these patients have myriad of important co-morbidities (e.g., diabetes, hypothyroidism and metabolic syndrome). The workup of patients with suspected NAFLD should consist of excluding competing etiologies and systemic evaluation of metabolic comorbidities. NAFLD is histologically categorized into steatosis and steatohepatitis, two states with fairly dichotomous natural history. While significant progress has been made in terms of noninvasively predicting advanced fibrosis, insufficient progress has been made in predicting steatohepatitis. Currently, liver biopsy remains the gold standard for the histological stratification of NAFLD. While sustained weight loss can be effective to treat NASH, it is often difficult to achieve. Foregut bariatric surgery can be quite effective in improving hepatic histology in selected patients without liver failure or significant portal hypertension. Thiazolidinediones have shown promise and the results from the ongoing, large multicenter study should become available soon. Large multicenter studies of CB, receptor anatagonists are also underway but their results will not be available for several years. Several recent studies have highlighted that cardiovascular disease is the single most important cause of morbidity and mortality in this patient population. Conclusion: Health care providers should not only focus on liver disease but also concentrate on aggressively modifying and treating their cardiovascular risk factors.Hepatology 10/2008; 49(1):306-17. · 11.19 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The "statins," or hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA)-reductase inhibitors, are a generally safe class of drugs that are widely used throughout the world and are rarely associated with severe hepatotoxicity. In this article, two cases of severe hepatotoxicity attributed to statin use are presented. In addition, a detailed summary of previously published cases of statin hepatotoxicity and the risks and benefits of statins in patients with chronic liver disease are presented. Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) from statins typically presents with an acute hepatocellular liver injury pattern, although mixed or cholestatic injury patterns have also been reported. Nonspecific autoantibodies as well as clinical, laboratory, and histological features of an autoimmune-like hepatitis may be present in some patients with statin hepatotoxicity. Despite their widespread use, acute liver failure and death have rarely been reported in patients with statin hepatotoxicity. Multiple retrospective studies as well as a large prospective randomized controlled trial demonstrate that statins can safely be given to hyperlipidemic patients with compensated chronic liver disease.Seminars in Liver Disease 11/2009; 29(4):412-22. · 8.27 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Autoimmune hepatitis is a common cause of chronic hepatitis, and acute presentation is thought to be uncommon. The aim of this study was to compare clinical, biochemical, and histological features in patients with autoimmune hepatitis presenting with either acute or chronic hepatitis. Retrospective review of all patients with autoimmune hepatitis presenting to a University medical center from 1993 to 2002. One hundred fifteen patients with autoimmune hepatitis were identified. Ten patients with autoimmune hepatitis were identified as having acute presentation (group I), and 20 patients with a classic presentation as chronic hepatitis (group II) served as age- and sex-matched controls. All patients met criteria published by the International Autoimmune Hepatitis Group. Patients with acute presentation differed significantly with regard to encephalopathy, albumin levels, and bilirubin levels. Blinded liver biopsy review demonstrated that those with acute presentation had significantly less fibrosis, and significantly greater interface hepatitis, lobular disarray, lobular hepatitis, hepatocyte necrosis, zone III necrosis, and submassive necrosis. In our study, patients with an acute presentation of autoimmune hepatitis differed from patients with a classical presentation clinically, biochemically, and histologically. In our review, a majority of patients with acute autoimmune hepatitis presented with fulminant hepatic failure. The pattern of zone 3 necrosis may be a specific finding in those with acute autoimmune hepatitis.Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology 07/2004; 2(7):625-31. · 6.53 Impact Factor