Public health approaches to family maltreatment prevention: resetting family psychology's sights from the home to the community.
ABSTRACT The authors review recent trends within the family maltreatment research field toward a public health approach, discuss the rationale for community-level interventions for family maltreatment, and sketch the history and development of community-level prevention approaches. Next, to illustrate the both the logistic and the scientific challenges of such work, the authors discuss the development and testing of an empirically guided, research-community partnership for the prevention of family maltreatment, the United States Air Force's NORTH STAR initiative (New Orientation to Reduce Threats to Health From Secretive Problems That Affect Readiness). Finally, recommendations are made for effective and disseminable family maltreatment prevention interventions.
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ABSTRACT: Children's reports of high family conflict consistently predict poor outcomes. The study identified criteria for high family conflict based on prospective prediction of increased risk for childhood depression. These criteria were subsequently used to establish the prevalence of high family conflict in Australian communities and to identify community correlates suitable for targeting prevention programs. Study 1 utilised a longitudinal design. Grade 6 and 8 students completed a family conflict scale (from the widely used Communities That Care survey) in 2003 and depression symptomotology were evaluated at a 1-year follow-up (International Youth Development Study, N = 1,798). Receiver-operating characteristic analysis yielded a cut-off point on a family conflict score with depression symptomatology as a criterion variable. A cut-off score of 2.5 or more (on a scale of 1 to 4) correctly identified 69 % with depression symptomology, with a specificity of 77.2 % and sensitivity at 44.3 %. Study 2 used data from an Australian national survey of Grade 6 and 8 children (Healthy Neighbourhoods Study, N = 8,256). Prevalence estimates were calculated, and multivariate logistic regression with multi-level modelling was used to establish factors associated with community variation in family conflict levels. Thirty-three percent of Australian children in 2006 were exposed to levels of family conflict that are likely to increase their future risk for depression. Significant community correlates for elevated family conflict included Indigenous Australian identification, socioeconomic disadvantage, urban and state location, maternal absence and paternal unemployment. The analysis provides indicators for targeting family-level mental health promotion programs.Prevention Science 06/2013; · 2.63 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Hypothesized risk factors for men's and women's clinically significant intimate partner violence (CS-IPV) from four ecological levels (i.e., individual, family, workplace, community) were tested in a representative sample of active-duty U.S. Air Force members (N = 42,744). When considered together, we expected only individual and family factors to account for unique variance in CS-IPV perpetration. Hypothesized factors from all four ecological levels were related to men's CS-IPV perpetration bivariately, but, as expected, only individual and family factors accounted for unique variance across ecological levels. For women, only risk factors from the individual and family levels were significantly related to CS-IPV perpetration even bivariately. Results imply somewhat different risk profiles across gender and identify ecological risk factors of men's CS-IPV not previously studied.Journal of Marriage and Family 03/2011; 73(2):486 - 501. · 3.01 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study examined the effectiveness of delivering the Prevention and Relationship Enhancement Program (PREP) to volunteer couples in the U.S. Air Force in either a six-week instructional multi-couple group condition or a self-directed book condition. A standardized pre/post protocol was employed and outcomes included relationship satisfaction and anger management skills, two known risk factors for partner maltreatment. Significant improvement was found for the group condition in both relationship satisfaction and anger management skills, but only for anger management skills in the self-directed book condition. Finally, the group condition reported greater program satisfaction. Implications are discussed.American Journal of Family Therapy 01/2013; 41(2). · 0.54 Impact Factor