Binocular Coordination During Reading and Non-Reading Tasks

School of Psychology, University of Southampton, Southampton, United Kingdom.
Psychological Bulletin (Impact Factor: 14.76). 10/2008; 134(5):742-63. DOI: 10.1037/a0012979
Source: PubMed


The goal of this review is to evaluate the literature on binocular coordination during reading and non-reading tasks in adult, child, and dyslexic populations. The review begins with a description of the basic characteristics of eye movements during reading. Then, reading and non-reading studies investigating binocular coordination are evaluated. Areas of future research in the field are identified and discussed. Finally, some general conclusions are made regarding binocular coordination. The review demonstrates that findings from traditionally independent areas of research are largely consistent and complementary. Throughout the review, theoretical and methodological commonalities are identified and clarified in order to advance current understanding of this fundamental aspect of human visual processing.

Download full-text


Available from: Julie A Kirkby,
    • "Similar results have been observed in older adults (Rayner et al., 2011); that is to say, they did not need more time for visual processing than young adults. Children also show striking similarities to adults in binocular coordination, although there are also some differences (Blythe et al., 2006; see Kirkby, Webster, Blythe, & Liversedge, 2008, for a review). Taken together, children and adults behave very similarly with respect to where to move the eyes in text and how the encoding of visual information takes place. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Extending our understanding of the interplay between visual and cognitive processes during reading is essential to understand how reading develops and changes across the lifespan. Monitoring readers' eye movements provides a fine-grained online protocol of the reading process as it evolves over time, but until recently eye movements have rarely been collected for young developing and ageing people. Developmental eye-tracking constitutes an emerging and innovative field that addresses various theoretical questions related to changes in the process of reading across the lifespan and the mechanisms that drive intra-individual trajectories and create inter-individual differences among readers. The aim of this editorial is to briefly summarise the current state of the field and to outline which questions are currently being investigated and presented in this Special Issue.
    Journal of Cognitive Psychology 07/2015; 27(5):500-510. DOI:10.1080/20445911.2015.1046877 · 1.20 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "To summarise, during reading, the visual system is primarily faced with horizontal disparities, which might be the reason why research in written language processing has focused mainly on horizontal binocular coordination (Blythe, Liversedge, & Findlay, 2010; see Kirkby et al., 2008 for review). Indeed, few studies so far have systematically investigated misalignments in reading in other dimensions, a limitation to the comprehensive understanding of binocular coordination that the current work aimed to address. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Humans typically make use of both eyes during reading, which necessitates precise binocular coordination in order to achieve a unified perceptual representation of written text. A number of studies have explored the magnitude and effects of naturally occurring and induced horizontal fixation disparity during reading and non-reading tasks. However, the literature concerning the processing of disparities in different dimensions, particularly in the context of reading, is considerably limited. We therefore investigated vertical vergence in response to stereoscopically presented linguistic stimuli with varying levels of vertical offset. A lexical decision task was used to explore the ability of participants to fuse binocular image disparity in the vertical direction during word identification. Additionally, a lexical frequency manipulation explored the potential interplay between visual fusion processes and linguistic processes. Results indicated that no significant motor fusional responses were made in the vertical dimension (all p-values > .11), though that did not hinder successful lexical identification. In contrast, horizontal vergence movements were consistently observed on all fixations in the absence of a horizontal disparity manipulation. These findings add to the growing understanding of binocularity and its role in written language processing, and fit neatly with previous literature regarding binocular coordination in non-reading tasks.
    Vision Research 11/2014; 106. DOI:10.1016/j.visres.2014.10.034 · 1.82 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • ". This effect is also consistent with the literature showing that, during fixation, vergence movements occur that reduce the magnitude of fixation disparity (Blythe et al., 2006; Jainta et al., 2010; Kirkby et al., 2010; Liversedge, White, et al., 2006; Nuthmann & Kliegl, 2009; see Kirkby et al., 2008, for a review). The interaction between eyetracker and sample point was also significant, F "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Previous studies examining binocular coordination during reading have reported conflicting results in terms of the nature of disparity (e.g. Kliegl, Nuthmann, & Engbert (Journal of Experimental Psychology General 135:12-35, 2006); Liversedge, White, Findlay, & Rayner (Vision Research 46:2363-2374, 2006). One potential cause of this inconsistency is differences in acquisition devices and associated analysis technologies. We tested this by directly comparing binocular eye movement recordings made using SR Research EyeLink 1000 and the Fourward Technologies Inc. DPI binocular eye-tracking systems. Participants read sentences or scanned horizontal rows of dot strings; for each participant, half the data were recorded with the EyeLink, and the other half with the DPIs. The viewing conditions in both testing laboratories were set to be very similar. Monocular calibrations were used. The majority of fixations recorded using either system were aligned, although data from the EyeLink system showed greater disparity magnitudes. Critically, for unaligned fixations, the data from both systems showed a majority of uncrossed fixations. These results suggest that variability in previous reports of binocular fixation alignment is attributable to the specific viewing conditions associated with a particular experiment (variables such as luminance and viewing distance), rather than acquisition and analysis software and hardware.
    Behavior Research Methods 01/2013; 45(3). DOI:10.3758/s13428-012-0301-2 · 2.93 Impact Factor
Show more