Physical restraint initiation in nursing homes and subsequent resident health.
ABSTRACT It is widely believed that physical restraint use causes mental and physical health decline in nursing home residents. Yet few studies exist showing an association between restraint initiation and health decline. In this research, we examined whether physical restraint initiation is associated with subsequent lower physical or mental health.
We used all nursing homes (N = 740) in Pennsylvania in 2001, with 12,820 residents. We used the Minimum Data Set data; Online Survey, Certification and Reporting data; and the Area Resource File as data sources. We restricted our sample to newly admitted nursing home residents who were not restrained in the first two quarters of their residency. We examined which facility and individual characteristics during those first two quarters were associated with restraint initiation during the third quarter. We then examined the association of third-quarter restraint initiation with fourth-quarter health outcomes, using regressions that controlled for first- and second-quarter health status as well as other resident, facility, and market characteristics. The physical health outcomes examined consisted of falls, walking dependence, activities of daily living (ADLs), pressure ulcers, and contractures. Mental health outcomes examined consisted of cognitive performance, depression, and behavior problems.
The initiation of restraint use was associated with a previous fall (p <.01), psychoactive medication use (p <.05), low cognition (p <.01), ADL scores (p <.01), and the absence of pressure ulcers (p <.10), as well as a variety of facility characteristics. Subsequent to restraint initiation, we found an association with lower cognitive performance (p <.01), lower ADL performance (p <.01), and higher walking dependence (p <.01).
We found that an association between restraint initiation and subsequent adverse health consequences exists and is substantial. Moreover, these results would appear to have practical as well as statistical significance.
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ABSTRACT: AimTo identify the rate and risk factors of physical restraint in residential aged care facilities in Taiwan. Background In Taiwan, physical restraint is commonly used in aged care facilities to prevent accidents. Many are unaware of the associated risks. Restrained residents cannot move freely, increasing the risk of atrophy and leading to reduced physical functioning. DesignA community-based epidemiological survey. Methods Data were collected from June-December 2007 across 178 residential aged care facilities with 5,173 residential beds in the target city of Taiwan. Twenty facilities were sampled using probability proportional to size by beds and accreditation ranking. In all, 256 primary caregivers (78 nurses and 178 care aides) and 847 residents completed the study questionnaires and tests. A multilevel analysis approach was used to identify individual- and facility-level risk factors for physical restraint and assess the variation in physical restraint at the individual- and facility-level. ResultsOf 847 residents, 62% (527) were restrained during the study period. The main reasons for restraint use were fall prevention and prevention of tube removal. Resident level risk factors for physical restraint included lower Barthel Index scores (more dependent) and an agreement allowing the use of physical restraint to avoid injury signed by a family member or social worker. A facility-level risk factor for physical restraint was younger primary caregivers. Conclusion To reduce the incidence of physical restraint in residential aged care facilities in Taiwan, educational programmes should target primary caregivers and families in facilities.Journal of Advanced Nursing 06/2013; 70(1). DOI:10.1111/jan.12176 · 1.69 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: ABSTRACTIntroduction: Although in most developed countries the use of restraints is regulated and restricted by law, the concept of restraint in nursing home care remains ambiguous. This study aims to explore how care professionals and family members of nursing home residents with dementia in the Netherlands experience and define the concept of restraint.Methods: Individual interviews were held with relatives (n = 7) and key persons (n = 9) in seven nursing homes. We also conducted eight focus group discussions with nursing home staff. In addition, a structured questionnaire was administered to the nurses of participating nursing homes.Results: In the questionnaire, over 80% of the respondents indicated considering âfixationâ (e.g. use of belts) as a restraint and 50 to 70% of the respondents regarded other physical interventions, such as geriatric chairs and bedrails, as restraints. The interviews and focus group discussions show that the residents' perception of the intervention, the staff's intention behind the intervention and concerns of privacy are the criteria used by the respondents in defining an intervention as a restraint.Conclusions: When trying to diminish restraint use, it is important to be aware of the âlocal logicâ of care practice and to take into account the fact that, for staff and relatives, an intervention is only regarded as a restraint when it is bothering a resident or when an intervention is used for the sole purpose of restricting freedom and/or when interventions invade the privacy of a resident.International Psychogeriatrics 06/2011; 23(5):1-9. DOI:10.1017/S1041610210002267 · 1.89 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Animals living in an impoverished environment, i.e., without the possibility of physical and social activity, perform worse on cognitive tests compared to animals in an enriched environment. The same cognitive difference is also observed in humans. However, it is not clear whether this difference is caused by a decrease in cognition due to an impoverished environment or an increase due to an enriched environment. This review discusses the impact of an impoverished environment on cognition in animal experimental studies and human experimental studies with community-dwelling and institutionalized older people. Results show that the cognitive functioning of old rats is more affected by an impoverished environment than young rats. Similarly, sedentary and lonely people (impoverished environment) have worse cognitive functioning and show a faster cognitive decline than physically and socially active people. Institutionalization further aggravates cognitive decline, probably due to the impoverished environment of nursing homes. In institutions, residents spend an unnecessary and excessive amount of time in bed; out of bed they show mainly sedentary or completely passive behavior. In conclusion, older people, especially those that have been institutionalized, have poor levels of physical and social activity, which in turn has a negative impact on cognitive functioning.Reviews in the neurosciences 01/2011; 22(3):259-66. DOI:10.1515/RNS.2011.026 · 3.31 Impact Factor