A rapid and easy multiresidue method for the determination of pesticide residues in vegetables, fruits, and cereals using liquid Chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.
ABSTRACT The applicability of a rapid and easy multiresidue method for determination of pesticide residues in agricultural products by using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) was examined. Pesticide residues were extracted with acetonitrile in a disposable tube using a homogenizer, followed by salting out with anhydrous magnesium sulfate and sodium chloride. The extract was purified with a double-layered cartridge column (graphite carbon black/primary-secondary amine silica gel). After removal of the solvent, the extract was resolved in methanol-water and analyzed with LC/MS/MS. Recovery tests of 99 pesticide residues from 7 agricultural products were performed at 20 and 100 ng/g. Throughout all of the agricultural products tested, 47 pesticides exhibited satisfactory recoveries (70-120%) and relative standard deviations (<20%) at both concentrations. The time for processing of 12 samples to test solutions was approximately 2-3 h. This method could be useful for determination of pesticide residues in agricultural products.
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ABSTRACT: Seven FDA pesticide laboratories collaborated to develop and validate an LC-MS/MS method to determine 173 pesticides in <20 min. The average determination coefficient (r²) was >0.99 for all but two compounds tested. The limits of detection were <20 ng/mL for all compounds and <10 ng/mL for 363 of the 368 transitions reported. The method was used to determine pesticides in two AOAC sponsored proficiency samples. The LC-MS/MS determination was used for the analysis of oranges, carrots and spinach using the QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, Safe) method. Each matrix was fortified at 20, 100, 400, and 1000 ng/g. No false positive responses were detected in controls of the three matrices. 165 pesticides had recoveries between 70 and 130%, and 161 had minimum detection levels less than 10 ng/g. Recoveries of 169 compounds for the 1000 ng/g spikes were within 50-150%. A matrix effect study indicated all three matrices caused a small net suppressing effect, the most pronounced attributable to the citrus matrix. The procedure proved to be accurate, precise, linear, sensitive and rugged, and adds 100 pesticides to the scope of the FDA pesticide program.Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 06/2011; 59(12):6383-411. · 2.91 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A validation study was conducted on a rapid multiresidue method for determination of pesticide residues in vegetables and fruits by LC-MS/MS. Pesticide residues in the vegetables or fruits were extracted with acetonitrile in a disposable tube using a homogenizer, followed by salting out with anhydrous magnesium sulfate and sodium chloride in the presence of citrate salts for buffering. The extract was purified with a double-layered cartridge column (graphite carbon black/primary secondary amine silica gel; GCB/PSA). For citrus fruits a purification step with a C18 column was added (this column was connected to the GCB/PSA column). After removal of the solvent, the extract was resolved in methanol/water and analyzed by means of LC-MS/MS. The method was validated according to the method validation guideline of the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan; recovery tests were performed on 8 kinds of vegetables and fruits [cabbage, cucumber, Japanese radish, onion, potato, spinach, Amanatsumikan (a citrus fruit) and apple] by fortification of 161 pesticide residues at the concentrations 0.01 and 0.05 μg/g (each concentration of pesticide residue was extracted from 2 samples on 5 separate days). The trueness of the method for 127 pesticides in all 8 commodities was 70-120% with satisfactory repeatability and within-run reproducibility. This method is concluded to be applicable for determination of pesticide residues in vegetables and fruits.Journal of the Food Hygienic Society of Japan (Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi) 01/2013; 54(3):237-49. · 0.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The present study focuses on the influence of a purification step – after extraction of pesticides from hair and before analysis of the extract – on the sensitivity of analytical methods including compounds from different chemical classes (both parent and metabolites). Sixty-seven pesticides and metabolites from different chemical classes were tested here: organochlorines, organophosphates, carbamates, pyrethroids, ureas, azoles, phenylpyrazoles and neonicotinoids. Two gas chromatography-negative chemical ionization–tandem mass spectrometry methods and one based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography–electrospray tandem mass spectrometry were used. Seven solid-phase extraction cartridges: C18, S-DVB, PS-DVB, GCB, GCB/PSA, SAX/PSA and Florisil/PSA were tested and compared to more classical liquid–liquid extraction procedures using ethyl acetate, hexane and dichloromethane. Although LLE allowed obtaining good results for some compounds, on the whole, SPE clearly provided better recovery for the majority of the pesticide residues tested in the present study. GCB/PSA was clearly the best suited to non-polar compounds such as organochlorines, pyrethroids and organophosphates, with recovery ranging from 45.9% (diflufenican) to 117.1% (parathion methyl). For hydrophilic metabolites (e.g. dialkyl phosphates and other organophosphate metabolites, pyrethroid metabolites, phenols and carbamate metabolites), the best results were obtained with PS-DVB, with recovery ranged from 10.3% (malathion monocarboxylic acid) to 93.1% (para-nitrophenol). For hydrophilic parent pesticides (e.g. neonicotinoids, carbamates, azoles) and metabolites without nucleophilic functions, the best recovery was obtained with SAX/PSA, with recovery ranging from 52.1% (3-hydroxycarbofuran) to 100.9% (3,4-dichloroaniline). Solid phase extraction was found to be more suitable than the liquid–liquid extraction for pesticides and their metabolites determination in terms of number of extracted compounds and their recovery. Moreover, the use of solid phase extraction cartridges has enabled the reduction of the analytical background noise, resulting in better chromatographic separations.Journal of Chromatography B 01/2014; 955–956:98 - 107. · 2.49 Impact Factor