A closer look at same-day bidirectional endoscopy.
ABSTRACT Same-day bidirectional endoscopy (BDE) is commonly used in clinical practice.
Our purpose was to determine the frequency, patient demographics, indications, and significant endoscopic findings for patients undergoing BDE.
Retrospective study with a national endoscopic database.
Diverse clinical practice settings in the United States, including 75% from private practice.
A total of 591,074 adult patients had upper or lower endoscopy; 66,265 patients (11.2%) with same-day BDE and a subgroup (n = 9067) with a common indication for both upper and lower examinations are the subjects of this analysis.
Age, sex, and procedure indication were analyzed in all subjects. Significant endoscopic findings were measured in patients with a single indication of anemia, a positive fecal occult blood test (FOBT), or abdominal pain/dyspepsia (pain) for both upper and lower endoscopy.
The Clinical Outcomes Research Initiative (CORI) national endoscopic database was analyzed to determine the number of patients who underwent same-day BDE between 2000 and 2004. Patients with a single indication of anemia, positive fecal occult blood test (FOBT), or abdominal pain/dyspepsia (pain) on both EGD and colonoscopy were included for the analysis of endoscopic findings. Significant upper GI findings were defined as suspected malignancy, arteriovenous malformation (AVM), ulcer, Barrett's esophagus, and stricture. Significant lower GI findings included suspected malignancy, polyp >9 mm, and AVM.
A total of 591,074 patients had upper and/or lower endoscopy; 66,265 patients (11.2%) had same-day BDE. The majority of patients were female (52.1%), and the mean age of patients with BDE was 60.8 years. A total of 6538 patients (9.9%) had anemia, 1169 (1.8%) had a positive FOBT, and 1360 (2.1%) had pain as the sole indication for both examinations. After adjustment for age and sex, significant findings were higher in patients with anemia than in those with pain (odds ratio 1.89; 95% CI, 1.59-2.26) and for patients with positive FOBT versus pain (odds ratio 1.83; 95% CI, 1.48-2.26).
Retrospective analysis with possible bias. Fewer patients with pain had significant findings compared to the other two groups (P value <.0001).
More than 10% of patients undergoing upper or lower endoscopy receive same-day BDE. BDE commonly revealed important conditions in patients with anemia or positive FOBT. Bidirectional endoscopy commonly revealed important pathology in patients with anemia or positive FOBT. Patients with pain had a lower prevalence of serious findings compared to the other groups studied. The benefits of BDE in patients with pain are uncertain and require additional investigation.
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ABSTRACT: Although bleeding lesions anywhere in the gastrointestinal tract can cause a positive reaction on guaiac-based fecal occult-blood tests, the relative frequency of upper gastrointestinal and colonic lesions is unknown. During a period of 30 months, we prospectively studied all patients with at least one stool specimen containing fecal occult blood who were referred for further evaluation. Fecal occult blood was detected by standard guaiac-based tests of stool specimens obtained as part of routine screening or of stool obtained by digital rectal examination. Patients with documented iron-deficiency anemia or active gastrointestinal bleeding were excluded from the study. All participants had a detailed history taken and underwent colonoscopy, followed by esophagogastroduodenoscopy. Of the 409 patients with fecal occult blood who were referred, 310 were potentially eligible to participate, and 248 (mean age, 61 years; range, 40 to 89) were studied; 40 percent were women. We identified lesions consistent with occult bleeding in 119 patients (48 percent); in 71 bleeding lesions were found in the upper gastrointestinal tract, and in 54 they were identified in the colon. Six patients had abnormalities in both areas. The most common upper gastrointestinal lesions were esophagitis (23 patients), gastric ulcer (14), gastritis (12), and duodenal ulcer (10). Thirty patients with lesions in the upper gastrointestinal tract were long-term users of aspirin, ethanol, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, or a combination of these substances. The most common colonic lesions were adenomas more than 1.0 cm in diameter (29 patients), carcinoma (13), colitis (5), and vascular ectasia (5). Although the overall sensitivity of symptoms for the detection of gastrointestinal lesions was low, logistic-regression analysis demonstrated that the presence of symptoms in the upper gastrointestinal tract was associated with the detection of lesions in the upper gastrointestinal tract (odds ratio, 2.6; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.4 to 4.7). In both patients with symptoms and those without symptoms, the prevalence of lesions in the upper gastrointestinal tract was greater than or equal to that of colonic lesions. In a group of patients with positive fecal occult-blood tests who were referred for further evaluation, from which those with iron-deficiency anemia and active bleeding had been excluded, upper gastrointestinal lesions were identified more frequently than colonic lesions.New England Journal of Medicine 08/1998; 339(3):153-9. · 51.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The investigation of iron-deficiency anaemia is often inadequate. Synchronous upper and lower gastrointestinal endoscopy under the same sedative episode (bidirectional endoscopy; BDE) has been proposed for all such patients. The value of this strategy has been examined prospectively. Eighty-nine patients with iron-deficiency anaemia underwent BDE using local anaesthesia of the throat and intravenous midazolam. A cause for gastrointestinal blood loss was found in 75 patients (84 per cent) after BDE alone. Twenty-five patients (28 per cent) had upper gastrointestinal pathology alone, 24 (27 per cent) had lower gastrointestinal pathology alone and 26 (29 per cent) had dual pathology. Forty-five patients (51 per cent) had gastrointestinal malignancy. Twenty patients (22 per cent) had further investigations and these yielded a diagnosis in five. No cause for the anaemia was found in nine patients (10 per cent). Treatment of the bleeding source(s) resolved the anaemia in all but one patient. BDE is an effective investigation for patients with iron-deficiency anaemia and its use should be encouraged.British Journal of Surgery 01/1998; 84(12):1725-8. · 4.84 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Dual endoscopy is frequently performed on the same day in patients whose stools are found to be positive on fecal occult blood testing (FOBT). This is often done to localize the potential sources of GI bleed. The diagnostic yield of same day dual upper endoscopy (EGD) and lower endoscopy (colonoscopy) for the detection of positive FOBT is uncertain. In the era of cost-efficient medical practice, we investigated whether a more evidence-based and structured approach could be used to guide physicians to the workup of patients who present with positive FOBT. We performed a retrospective analysis of 309 patients, and 260 patients from this population met our inclusion criteria. Inclusion criteria included FOBT without acute GI hemorrhage, hematochezia, or melena. Patients were required to have had EGD and colonoscopy within the same day (<24 h). Of 260 patients, a total of 135 (52%) patients had positive findings on colonoscopy and a total of 42 (16.1%) patients had positive findings on EGD. Sixteen (6.1%) had positive EGD and negative colonoscopy; 109 (42%) had positive colonoscopy and negative EGD; and 26 (10%) had positive findings on both EGD and colonoscopy. Colonoscopy should be chosen as the initial procedure of choice in the evaluation of patients who present with positive FOBT. Same day dual endoscopy does not seem to be cost-effective.The American Journal of Gastroenterology 01/2003; 98(1):82-5. · 7.55 Impact Factor