GABA A receptor subtype selectivity underlying selective anxiolytic effect of baicalin.
ABSTRACT Baicalin, a naturally occurring flavonoid, was previously reported to induce anxiolytic-like effect devoid of sedation and myorelaxation in mice, acting through type A gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA(A)) receptor benzodiazepine (BZ) site. The present study further expanded the behavioral pharmacology profile of baicalin and subtype selectivity was explored as a possible mechanism underlying its in vivo effects on mice. Baicalin was characterized using convulsion, memory, and motor function related animal tests; and its selectivity towards recombinant GABA(A) receptor subtypes expressed in HEK 293T cells was determined by radioligand binding assay and electrophysiological studies. In the picrotoxin-induced seizure, step-through passive avoidance and rotarod tests, the anticonvulsant, amnesic and motor incoordination effects commonly associated with classical BZs were not observed when baicalin was administered at effective anxiolytic doses, demonstrating a separation of the anticonvulsant, amnesic and motor incoordination effects from the anxiolytic-like effect. Although baicalin exhibited higher binding affinity for the alpha1-containing GABA(A) subtype compared with alpha2-, alpha3-, and alpha5-containing subtypes, this was not statistically significant. In contrast to the classical BZ diazepam, baicalin showed significant preference for alpha2- and alpha3-containing subtypes compared to alpha1- and alpha5-containing subtypes in whole-cell patch clamp studies (P < 0.01). Its subtype selectivity suggested that baicalin exerted its in vivo anxiolytic-like effect mainly through the alpha2- and alpha3-containing subtypes. Therefore, the present study revealed an underlying mechanism for the selective anxiolytic profile of baicalin, suggesting alpha2- and alpha3-containing subtypes were important drug targets for flavonoid-based anxiolytics.
SourceAvailable from: Grzegorz Raszewski
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ABSTRACT: Context: Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (Lamiaceae) has been used as a traditional herbal preparation for the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders in Asian countries for centuries. Objective: To evaluate the effects of S. baicalensis on morphine-induced drug dependence in rats. Materials and methods: In order to evaluate the effect of S. baicalensis and baicalin on morphine-induced dependence-like behavior, a water extract of S. baicalensis [500 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (i.p.)] or baicalin (50 mg/kg, i.p., a flavonoid found in S. baicalensis) was administered prior to morphine injection [5 and 2.5 mg/kg, respectively, subcutaneously (s.c.)] to rats for 8 and 4 d, respectively. Morphine-induced conditioned place preference was assessed by measuring the time spent in a drug-paired chamber. The effect of S. baicalensis on dopamine receptor supersensitivity (locomotor activity) and dopamine agonist-induced climbing behavior due to a single apomorphine treatment (2 mg/kg, s.c.) was also measured. Results: At 50 mg/kg, a water extract of S. baicalensis decreased morphine (5 mg/kg)-induced conditioned place preference by 86% in rats. Apomorphine (2 mg/kg)-induced locomotor activity (dopamine receptor supersensitivity) in rats and climbing behavior in mice were attenuated after pretreatment with 500 mg/kg of S. baicalensis water extract by 41% and 56%, respectively. In addition, baicalin-reduced morphine-induced conditioned places preference by 86% in rats at 50 mg/kg. Discussion and conclusion: These results suggest that S. baicalensis can ameliorate drug addiction-related behavior through functional regulation of dopamine receptors.Pharmaceutical Biology 07/2014; DOI:10.3109/13880209.2014.892514 · 1.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Backgrounds. Oxidative stress can result from excessive free-radical production and it is likely implicated as a possible mechanism involved in the initiation and progression of epileptogenesis. Flavonoids can protect the brain from oxidative stress. In the central nervous system (CNS) several flavonoids bind to the benzodiazepine site on the GABAA-receptor resulting in anticonvulsive effects. Objective. This review provides an overview about the role of flavonoids in oxidative stress in epilepsy. The mechanism of action of flavonoids and its relation to the chemical structure is also discussed. Results/Conclusions. There is evidence that suggests that flavonoids have potential for neuroprotection in epilepsy.Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity 01/2015; 2015:171756. DOI:10.1155/2015/171756 · 3.36 Impact Factor