Selenium dependent glutathione peroxidase (Se-GPx) belongs to the family of selenoprotein, which acts mainly as an antioxidant in the cellular defence system. We have identified Se-GPx full length cDNA from disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus) designated as AbSe-GPx. It has a characteristic codon at (223)TGA(225) that corresponds to selenocysteine (Sec) amino acid as U(75). The full length cDNA consists of 675 bp, an open reading frame encoding 225 amino acids. Sequence characterization revealed that AbSe-GPx contains a characteristic GPx signature motif 2 ((97)LGFPCNQF(104)), an active site motif ((183)WNFEKF(188)) and essential residues for the enzymatic function. Additionally, the eukaryotic selenocysteine insertion sequence (SECIS) is conserved in the 3' UTR. The AbSe-GPx amino acid sequence exhibited the highest level of identity (46%) with insect (Ixodes scapularis) GPx, and shares 41% with bivalve (Unio tumidus) Se-GPx. The RT-PCR analysis revealed that AbSe-GPx mRNA was expressed constitutively in gill, mantle, gonad, abductor muscle, digestive tract, and hemocytes in a tissue specific manner. AbSe-GPx mRNA expression was significantly up-regulated in gill and digestive tract tissues after H(2)O(2) injection and Vibrio alginolyticus infection. However, AbSe-GPx expression was not up-regulated after Aroclor 1,254 injection. These results indicate that AbSe-GPx mRNA is expressed at a basal level in abalone tissues, which can be up-regulated transcriptionally by H(2)O(2) oxidative stress and Vibrio alginolyticus infection. Therefore, AbSe-GPx may be involved in a protective role against H(2)O(2) oxidative stress and immune defence against bacterial infection.
"Recently, several studies have demonstrated the immune modulation of GPx in marine invertebrates such as GPx of Haliotis discus discus , Chlamys farreri , Litopenaeus vannamei , Fenneropenaeus chinensis . GPx has also been well characterized for its antioxidant activity in Unio tumidus  and Crassostrea gigas . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glutathione peroxidases (GPx) are key enzymes in the antioxidant systems of living organisms by catalyzing the reduction of peroxides to non-reactive products. In the present study, the full-length cDNA encoding a selenium-dependent GPx was identified from Venerupis philippinarum (designated as VpSe-GPx), and the spatial and temporal expression patterns post-Vibrio anguillarum, heavy metals and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) challenge were also investigated. VpSe-GPx possessed all the conserved features critical for the fundamental structure and function of glutathione peroxidase. The VpSe-GPx mRNA was found to be most abundantly expressed in hepatopancreas. Vibrio challenge could significantly up-regulate the mRNA expression of VpSe-GPx, and the highest expression level was detected at 24 h post-infection with 6.5-fold increase compared with that in the control group. For heavy metals exposure, the expression of VpSe-GPx was significantly induced by 20, 40 μg L(-1) Cd and 10, 20 μg L(-1) Cu but depressed by 10 μg L(-1) Cd and 40 μg L(-1) Cu. With regards to B[a]P exposure, the expression of VpSe-GPx mRNA was significantly induced at 48 and 96 h post challenge. All these results suggested that VpSe-GPx was potentially involved in mediating the immune response and antioxidant defense in V. Philippinarum.
"A normalized cDNA library was constructed by isolating RNA from whole tissues of unstimulated disk abalone. The basic procedure of cDNA library construction, normalization and initial sequencing have been described in our previous reports  . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We describe molecular characterization and transcriptional analysis of the gene encoding tumor suppressor QM-like protein, AbQM, in the disk abalone Haliotis discus discus. The full-length cDNA (765-bp) of AbQM was found to consist of a 654-bp ORF coding for a 218 amino acid protein of a 25 kDa molecular mass with a 10.2 isoelectric point. Analysis of AbQM sequence revealed the presence of characteristic motifs, including the ribosomal protein L10 signature, SH3-binding motif and two antibiotic binding sites. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that AbQM is closely related to other mollusk QM proteins, and altogether they form a mollusk QM protein sub-family which displays evolutionary conservation from yeast to human. Tissue-specific expression and transcriptional regulation of AbQM was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR in response to bacterial (Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio parahemolyticus, Listeria monocytogenes) and viral (viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus, VHSV) challenge. AbQM transcripts were found to be expressed ubiquitously in all examined tissues in a constitutive manner, as similar expression levels were detected in hemocytes, mantle, digestive tract and muscle. Upon bacterial and VHSV challenge, AbQM showed significant up-regulation in gills, but not in hemocytes. Taken together, these findings suggest that AbQM in abalone-like mollusks can respond to and facilitate a defensive effect against pathogenic infection.
"AbAIF-1 gene-specific primers were designed based on the AbAIF-1 coding sequence. Additionally, expression of abalone GPx was measured after tissue injury using gene-specific primers of AbGPxF-1 and AbGPx-2 . The abalone ribosomal protein (Accession: EF103443) was selected as a reference gene, and it was amplified using AbRibosomal-F1 and AbRibosomal-R2 genespecific primers (Table 1). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Here, we report the identification and characterization of allograft inflammatory factor-1 (AIF-1) from disk abalone Haliotis discus discus that was denoted as AbAIF-1. The full-length cDNA of AbAIF-1 consists of a coding region (453 bp) for 151 amino acids with a 17 kDa molecular mass. Analysis of AbAIF-1 sequence showed that it shares characteristic two EF hand Ca(+2)-binding motifs. Results from phylogenetic analysis further confirm that AbAIF-1 is a member of the AIF-1 family similar to invertebrate and vertebrate counterparts suggesting it has high evolutional conservation. Tissue-specific expression and transcriptional regulation of AbAIF-1 were analyzed after bacteria (Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio parahemolyticus and Lysteria monocytogenes), viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) immune challenge and during tissue injury by quantitative real-time PCR. It is shown that the expression of AbAIF-1 mRNA was expressed ubiquitously in all selected tissues in constitutive manner showing the highest level in hemocytes. Upon bacteria and VHSV challenge, AbAIF-1 showed the significant up-regulation in hemocytes than gills. After the tissue injury in shell and mantle, AbAIF-1 and antioxidant selenium-dependant glutathione peroxidase (SeGPx) transcripts were significantly upregulated in abalone hemocytes. Taken together, these findings suggest that AIF-1 could response against the pathogenic challenge or tissue injury in abalone like mollusks. Also, AbAIF-1 may involve in wound healing and shell repair after the tissue injury of abalone.
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