Several studies have indicated that cytokines may be involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Previous studies, however, have yielded contradictory results; in this study we assess the plasma levels of both T-helper-1 (Th1) and T-helper-2 (Th2) cytokines in patients with acute exacerbations of schizophrenia. Plasma concentrations of interleukin-4 (IL-4), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), interleukin-10 (IL-10), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and soluble receptor of interleukin-6 (sIL-6R) were measured with high sensitivity, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) in patients with acute exacerbations of schizophrenia as compared with healthy controls. Patients with an acute exacerbation of schizophrenia had significantly increased production of TNF-alpha and significantly reduced production of IL-4 as compared with healthy subjects. No significant difference was observed in IL-6, sIL-6R, IL-8 and IL-10. Acute exacerbations of schizophrenia are associated with increased TNF-alpha concentrations (Th1) with concomitantly reduced concentrations of IL-4 (Th2) and a resulting increased TNF-alpha/IL-4 ratio.
"Various cytokines have been studied in connection with schizophrenia, but the findings are inconsistent. For example, studies have shown increased levels of IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α8,20-23) but decreased levels of IL-224,25) in SCP, while others have found no change26,27) in cytokine levels. Moreover, there is contradictory evidence concerning anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IFN-γ, IL-4, and IL-10. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the effects of antipsychotics on immune-challenged peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cultures.
Blood samples were collected from twelve patients with first-episode schizophrenia. The PBMCs were separated and cultures were prepared and stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly[I:C]), and then separately treated with a typical antipsychotic (haloperidol) or atypical antipsychotic (clozapine, quetiapine, or risperidone). Pro-inflammatory (interferon gamma [IFN-γ]) and anti-inflammatory (interleukin [IL]-4 and IL-10) cytokine levels were measured in the LPS- or poly(I:C)-stimulated PBMC cultures treated with antipsychotics.
Haloperidol and quetiapine significantly increased the IL-4 levels (p<0.05) in LPS-stimulated PBMC cultures, while clozapine and quetiapine significantly enhanced the IL-4 levels (p<0.05) in poly(I:C)-stimulated PBMC cultures. Only treatment with haloperidol resulted in a significant increase in IL-10 production (p<0.05) in LPS-stimulated PBMC cultures, whereas clozapine, quetiapine, and risperidone treatment significantly increased IL-10 production (p<0.05) in poly(I:C)-stimulated PBMC cultures. All of the antipsychotics reduced the IFN-γ level significantly (p<0.05) in LPS- and poly(I:C)-stimulated PBMC cultures.
Antipsychotic treatment altered immune function by raising the levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10) and suppressing the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IFN-γ).
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience 12/2013; 11(3):144-51. DOI:10.9758/cpn.2013.11.3.144
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Upper Mesozoic strate of the Korean Peninsula are subdivisible into three unconformity-bounded units, and they developed time-transgressively toward the Pacific. The lower unit straddling the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary occurs profusely in Northern Korea with substantial amount of volcanic rocks but is extremely rare in Southern Korea. The middle, Hauterivian-lower Albian, unit occurs scattered in the Korean Peninsula but preponderantly in the Kyongsang Basin, Southeastern Korea. The upper unit is extremely rare in North Korea but is abundant in the southern part of Southern Korea, where it is characterized by calcalkaline volcanic rocks. Such a tendency of southeastward younging is also apparent over the ‘Koguryo Magmatic Province’ inclusive of Korea, suggesting that the shifting was caused by the retreating subduction zone on the Pacific side. But the post-Triassic magmatisms were largely keeping the same overall area suggesting a sustained hot spot above a plume below. The association in space and time of magmatisms and sedimentations implies their genetic relation. The Cretaceous sedimentary basins of Southern Korea are interpreted as pull-apart origins under a strike-slip tectonics.
Developments in Palaeontology and Stratigraphy 01/2000; 17:91-111. DOI:10.1016/S0920-5446(00)80026-6
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Cretaceous sedimentary basins in Mongolia are grouped into three major depositional provinces (Altai, Khangai-Khentei and Gobi) with ten basins (basins of Great Lakes, Valley of Lakes, Arkhangai, Onon, Choir-Nyalga, Choibalsan, Transaltai Gobi, Umnogobi, Dornogobi and Tamsag), which are all filled by continental deposits with abundant vertebrate and invertebrate fossils as well as plant remains. Most of their stratigraphical, paleontological and sedimentological features are summarized, giving regional corelation of the strata and taking account of environmental characteristics.
Developments in Palaeontology and Stratigraphy 01/2000; 17(17):49-79. DOI:10.1016/S0920-5446(00)80024-2
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