Increased tumor necrosis factor-alpha concentrations with interleukin-4 concentrations in exacerbations of schizophrenia.
ABSTRACT Several studies have indicated that cytokines may be involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Previous studies, however, have yielded contradictory results; in this study we assess the plasma levels of both T-helper-1 (Th1) and T-helper-2 (Th2) cytokines in patients with acute exacerbations of schizophrenia. Plasma concentrations of interleukin-4 (IL-4), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), interleukin-10 (IL-10), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and soluble receptor of interleukin-6 (sIL-6R) were measured with high sensitivity, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) in patients with acute exacerbations of schizophrenia as compared with healthy controls. Patients with an acute exacerbation of schizophrenia had significantly increased production of TNF-alpha and significantly reduced production of IL-4 as compared with healthy subjects. No significant difference was observed in IL-6, sIL-6R, IL-8 and IL-10. Acute exacerbations of schizophrenia are associated with increased TNF-alpha concentrations (Th1) with concomitantly reduced concentrations of IL-4 (Th2) and a resulting increased TNF-alpha/IL-4 ratio.
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ABSTRACT: We here present data on immune gene expression of chemokines, chemokine receptors, cytokines and regulatory T-cell (T-reg) markers in chronic patients suffering from either schizophrenia (SCZ, N=20) or bipolar disorder (BD=20) compared with healthy controls (HCs, N=20). We extracted RNA from peripheral blood mononuclear cells and performed real-time (RT)-PCR to measure mRNA levels of chemokines, chemokine receptors, cytokines and T-reg markers. All the analyses were Bonferroni-corrected. The classical monocyte activation (M1) markers il6, ccl3 were significantly increased in BD as compared with both HC and SCZ patients (P=0.03 and P=0.002; P=0.024 and P=0.021, respectively), whereas markers of alternative (M2) monocyte activation ccl1, ccl22 and il10 were coherently decreased (controls: P=0.01, P=0.001 and P=0.09; SCZ subjects: P=0.02, P=0.05 and P=0.011, respectively). Concerning T-cell markers, BD patients had compared with HC downregulated ccr5 (P=0.02) and upregulated il4 (P=0.04) and compared with both healthy and SCZ individuals downregulated ccl2 (P=0.006 and P=0.003) and tgfβ (P=0.004 and P=0.007, respectively). No significant associations were found between any immune gene expression and clinical variables (prior hospitalizations, Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, medications' dosages and lifetime administration). Although some markers are expressed by different immune cell types, these findings suggest a coherent increased M1/decrease M2 signature in the peripheral blood of BD patients with potential Th1/Th2 shift. In contrast, all the explored immune marker levels were preserved in SCZ. Further larger studies are needed to investigate the relevance of inflammatory response in BD, trying to correlate it to psychopathology, treatment and outcome measures and, possibly, to brain connectivity.Translational psychiatry. 07/2014; 4:e406.
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ABSTRACT: Many lines of findings support the hypothesis of the inflammation-related pathways in the multifactorial pathogenesis of schizophrenia (SZ). Interleukin-10 (IL-10), a potential anti-inflammatory cytokine, was found to be altered in chronic patients with SZ. The aim of this study was to assess the serum levels of IL-10 in first-episode and drug-naïve (FEDN) patients with SZ and its relationships with the psychopathological parameters. Serum IL-10 levels were analyzed using established procedures in 128 FEDN patients with SZ and 62 healthy controls. Schizophrenia symptoms were assessed by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) with cognitive factor derived from the five factor model of the PANSS. Compared to the healthy controls, the patients exhibited a significant decrease in IL-10 levels. Serum IL-10 was inversely correlated with the PANSS negative symptom, as well as with the PANSS cognitive factor subscores in patients. Our results suggested that decreased IL-10 may be implicated in the negative symptom and cognitive impairment at the acute stage of schizophrenia episode.Schizophrenia Research 06/2014; · 4.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A substantial body of evidence implicates TNF-alpha (TNFα) and TNFα-related signaling pathways in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. The current study examined the relationship between TNFα serum levels and both psychopathological as well as cognitive symptoms in schizophrenia.Psychopharmacology 06/2014; 232(1). · 3.99 Impact Factor