A promising new alternative for the rapid reversal of warfarin coagulopathy in traumatic intracranial hemorrhage.

Department of Surgery, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA 90048, USA.
American journal of surgery (Impact Factor: 2.41). 09/2008; 197(6):785-90. DOI: 10.1016/j.amjsurg.2008.04.003
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Internationally, Factor IX complex (FIX complex) has been used to correct warfarin-induced coagulopathy. We present our experience with 28 patients using FIX complex.
A retrospective chart review was conducted between November 2002 and July 2006 on patients with warfarin-induced coagulopathy. We recorded the dose and timing of FIX complex, serial international normalized ratios (INRs), early adverse events, and patient outcome.
Twenty-eight patients met criteria. The mean INR on admission was 5.1, and after FIX complex infusion was reduced significantly to 1.9 (P = .008). Eleven patients had a repeat INR drawn within 30 minutes after FIX complex infusion. The mean time to correction was 13.5 minutes. There were no early thrombotic events or allergic reactions.
FIX complex results in an immediate reversal of coagulopathy within 15 minutes after administration. Its use should be considered as an alternative treatment to fresh-frozen plasma and recombinant Factor VIIa. Prospective randomized trials are needed to confirm these findings.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The use of prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC) to reverse acquired (coagulopathy of trauma) and induced coagulopathy (preinjury warfarin use) is well defined. To compare outcomes in patients with traumatic brain injury without warfarin therapy receiving PCC as an adjunct to fresh frozen plasma (FFP) therapy compared with patients receiving FFP therapy alone. All patients with traumatic brain injury coagulopathy without warfarin therapy who received PCC (25 IU/kg) in conjunction with FFP or FFP alone at our Level I trauma center were reviewed. Coagulopathy was defined as an international normalized ratio >1.5. The groups (PCC + FFP vs FFP alone) were matched using propensity score matching on a 1:2 ratio for age, sex, Glasgow Coma Scale score, Injury Severity Score, head Abbreviated Injury Scale score, and international normalized ratio (INR) on presentation. The primary outcome measure was time to craniotomy. Secondary outcome measures were blood product requirements, cost of therapy, and mortality. A total of 1641 patients were reviewed, 222 of whom were included (PCC + FFP, 74; FFP, 148). The mean ± standard deviation age was 46.4 ± 21.7 years, the median (range) Glasgow Coma Scale score was 8 (3-12), and the mean ± standard deviation INR on presentation was 1.92 ± 0.6. PCC + FFP therapy was associated with an accelerated correction of INR (P = .001) and decrease in overall pack red blood cell (P = .035) and FFP (P = .041) administration requirement. Craniotomy was performed in 26.1% of patients (n = 58). Patients who received PCC + FFP therapy had faster time to craniotomy (P = .028) compared with patients who received FFP therapy alone. PCC as an adjunct to FFP decreases the time to craniotomy with faster correction of INR and concomitant decrease in the need for blood product requirement in patients with traumatic brain injury exclusive of prehospital warfarin therapy. AIS, Abbreviated Injury ScaleFFP, fresh frozen plasmaINR, international normalized ratioPCC, prothrombin complex concentraterFVIIa, recombinant factor VIIaRHCT, repeat head computed tomography scanSD, standard deviationTBI, traumatic brain injury.
    Neurosurgery 05/2015; 76(5):601-607. DOI:10.1227/NEU.0000000000000685 · 3.03 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Despite recent advances, trauma care providers nowadays face a number of coagulopathic patients. Coagulopathy in trauma patients can be secondary to the traumatic insult or therapeutic effect of the anticoagulants including the Vitamin K antagonist. The efficacy of a concentrated product of Vitamin K–dependent coagulation factors, prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC), to reverse coagulopathy has been tested mainly in nontrauma setting.
    The American Journal of Surgery 10/2014; 209(2). DOI:10.1016/j.amjsurg.2014.08.019 · 2.41 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Warfarin, an oral vitamin K antagonist, is used to prevent arterial and venous thromboembolism in patients suffering from a multitude of diseases. In 2004, 31 million warfarin prescriptions were dispensed in the United States. Warfarin inhibits the activation of the vitamin K-dependent clotting factors (Factors II, VII, IX, and X) and regulatory proteins (proteins C, S, and Z). It is one of the leading drugs implicated in emergency room visits for adverse drug reactions. Annually the frequency of bleeding complications associated with overanticoagulation is 15% to 20%, with fatal bleeds measuring as high as 1% to 3%. The most effective method of warfarin reversal involves the use of Four Factor Prothrombin Complex Concentrate (PCC), which is widely used throughout Europe but is unavailable in the United States. The current therapies available to emergency room physicians in the United States are fresh frozen plasma, recombinant Factor VIIa (rFVIIa), Factor Eight Inhibitory Bypassing Activity, or Three Factor PCC concomitantly administered with vitamin K. We review the advantages and disadvantages of these therapies and recommend Three Factor PCC with small doses of rFVIIa and with vitamin K in life-threatening situations if Four Factor PCC is unavailable.
    The western journal of emergency medicine 11/2011; 12(4):386-92. DOI:10.5811/westjem.2011.3.2051