Article

Aberrant expression of ovary determining gene FOXL2 in the testis and juvenile granulosa cell tumor in children

Unité d'Endocrinologie-Gynécologie Pédiatrique, Service de Pédiatrie 1, Hôpital Arnaud-de-Villeneuve and Service d'Hormonologie du Développement et de Reproduction, Hôpital Lapeyronie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Montpellier, Montpellier, France.
The Journal of urology (Impact Factor: 3.75). 09/2008; 180(4 Suppl):1810-3. DOI: 10.1016/j.juro.2008.03.097
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT FOXL2 is the earliest known marker of ovarian differentiation in mammals. It is involved in ovarian somatic cell differentiation and further follicle maintenance. FOXL2 is not implicated in determination of the male gonad and it is absent in the testis. We investigated whether the rare JGCTT (juvenile granulose cell tumor of the testis), named for its histological similarity to ovarian tumor, could be the first illustration of aberrant expression of this ovary determining gene in the human testis.
Between 1990 and 2004, 3 boys with JGCTT were reported from the TGM95 database of the French Society for Childhood Cancer and from 8 pediatric endocrinology centers. Orchiectomy was performed in these patients. Immunohistochemistry of FOXL2, and co-immunofluorescence of FOXL2 and SOX9 were performed on tumor sections.
Testicular tumor cells showed aberrant expression of FOXL2, which resembled normal ovarian granulosa cells. The localization of FOXL2 expression was nuclear without any cytoplasmic sequestration, suggesting that FOXL2 had biological activity. Conversely SOX9, which is present in the nucleus of normal testicular cells, was sequestered in the cytoplasm of granulosa tumor cells or markedly under expressed in the nuclei. In this case of residual SOX9 nuclear expression the expression of FOXL2 and SOX9 was mutually exclusive.
To our knowledge we report the first human model of aberrant intratesticular expression of an ovary determining gene along with the extinction of SOX9 and the transdifferentiation of a testicular cell into a granulosa tumor cell.

0 Followers
 · 
227 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Infertility adversely affects many couples worldwide. Conversely, the exponential increase in world population threatens our planet and its resources. Therefore, a greater understanding of the fundamental cellular and molecular events that control the size of the primordial follicle pool and follicular development is of utmost importance to develop improved in vitro fertilization as well as to design novel approaches to regulate fertility. In this review we attempt to highlight some new advances in basic research of the mammalian ovary that have occurred in recent years focusing primarily on mouse models that have contributed to our understanding of ovarian follicle formation, development, and ovulation. We hope that these new insights into ovarian function will trigger more research and translation to clinically relevant problems.
    Handbook of experimental pharmacology 01/2010; DOI:10.1007/978-3-642-02062-9_1
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: FOXL2 is a transcription factor that is essential for ovarian development. Somatic mutations of FOXL2 are associated with ovarian granulosa cell tumorigenesis. In the present study, the expression of FOXL2 was suppressed by microRNAs using the Ago2 knockdown method in COV434 cells. Online bioinformatics tools were utilized to predict that FOXL2 expression may be repressed by miR-30 family members, and dual luciferase assay and western blotting were performed to demonstrate that FOXL2 is a target gene of miR-30a, which is relatively abundant in COV434 cells. Furthermore, miR-30a overexpression upregulates BCL2A1, IER3 and cyclin D2 expression by inhibiting FOXL2. miR-30a is known to function as a tumor suppressor in breast cancer, small cell lung cancer and colorectal carcinoma; however, the present study revealed an opposing function of miR-30a as an oncogene.
    Oncology letters 02/2015; 9(2):967-971. DOI:10.3892/ol.2014.2723 · 0.99 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background In children and adolescents, testicular sex cord stromal tumors (TSCSTs) are rare. There is only limited information available regarding their clinical presentation, biology, and prognosis. Methods Between 1993 and 2009, 42 patients were prospectively reported to the cooperative MAHO and MAKEI studies on childhood germ cell tumors. Based on standardized documentation, data on epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnostic features, histopathological differentiation, therapy, and follow-up were evaluated. Results During the study period, a gradual increase of the documentation of these rare tumors was observed. Palpable, indolent testicular swelling was the most common clinical finding. In three patients, retention of the testis was observed. Two patients showed sexual precocity, and one patient showed a 45X/46XY mosaic. Juvenile granulosa cell tumors (n = 16) and Sertoli cell tumor (n = 15) were the leading histopathological subtypes. The first were commonly diagnosed during the first weeks of life (median age: 6(0–162) days, the latter during infancy (median 7(0–14) months, P < 0.05). Other histological diagnoses included Leydig cell and Large Cell Calcifying Sertoli cell tumors (both n = 3) and not-otherwise-specified TSCSTs (n = 5), which were diagnosed during childhood and adolescence. All tumors were limited to the testis; there were no metastases. Treatment was surgical, only. After a median follow-up of 3.8 years, no relapse was observed. Conclusions Diagnosis and therapy of testicular tumors should be planned in accordance with the recommendations of the respective childhood germ cell tumor protocols. High inguinal orchiectomy is safe and constitutes definitive therapy. Diagnostic work-up and follow-up should also consider potentially associated tumor predisposition syndromes. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2013;9999:XX-XX. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Pediatric Blood & Cancer 10/2013; 60(10). DOI:10.1002/pbc.24607 · 2.56 Impact Factor