Perineural administration of dexmedetomidine in combination with bupivacaine enhances sensory and motor blockade in sciatic nerve block without inducing neurotoxicity in rat

Department of Anesthesiology, Division of Pain Medicine, The University of Michigan Health System, 7433 Medical Sciences Building 1, 1150 West Medical Center Drive, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-5615, USA.
Anesthesiology (Impact Factor: 6.17). 10/2008; 109(3):502-11. DOI: 10.1097/ALN.0b013e318182c26b
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The current study was designed to test the hypothesis that high-dose dexmedetomidine added to local anesthetic would increase the duration of sensory and motor blockade in a rat model of sciatic nerve blockade without causing nerve damage.
Thirty-one adult Sprague-Dawley rats received bilateral sciatic nerve blocks with either 0.2 ml bupivacaine, 0.5%, and 0.5% bupivacaine plus 0.005% dexmedetomidine in the contralateral extremity, or 0.2 ml dexmedetomidine, 0.005%, and normal saline in the contralateral extremity. Sensory and motor function were assessed by a blinded investigator every 30 min until the return of normal sensory and motor function. Sciatic nerves were harvested at either 24 h or 14 days after injection and analyzed for perineural inflammation and nerve damage.
High-dose dexmedetomidine added to bupivacaine significantly enhanced the duration of sensory and motor blockade. Dexmedetomidine alone did not cause significant motor or sensory block. All of the nerves analyzed had normal axons and myelin at 24 h and 14 days. Bupivacaine plus dexmedetomidine showed less perineural inflammation at 24 h than the bupivacaine group when compared with the saline control.
The finding that high-dose dexmedetomidine can safely improve the duration of bupivacaine-induced antinociception after sciatic nerve blockade in rats is an essential first step encouraging future studies in humans. The dose of dexmedetomidine used in this study may exceed the sedative safety threshold in humans and could cause prolonged motor blockade; therefore, future work with clinically relevant doses is necessary.

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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the sedative effect of dexmedetomidine (DEX) added to ropivacaine for supraclavicular brachial plexus block (BPB) using the bispectral index (BIS). Sixty patients (American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status 1 or 2, aged 20-65 years) undergoing wrist and hand surgery under supraclavicular BPB were randomly allocated to two groups. Ultrasound-guided supraclavicular BPB was performed with 40 ml of ropivacaine 0.5% and 1 µg/kg of DEX (Group RD) or 0.01 ml/kg of normal saline (Group R). The primary endpoint was the BIS change during 60 min after block. The secondary endpoint was the change in the mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), and SpO2 and the onset time and duration of the sensory and motor block. In Group RD, the BIS decreased significantly until 30 min after the block (69.2 ± 13.7), but remained relatively constant to 60 min (63.8 ± 15.3). The MAP, HR and BIS were significantly decreased compared with Group R. The onset time of the sensory and motor block were significantly faster in Group RD than in Group R. The duration of the sensory and motor block were significantly increased in Group RD. DEX added to ropivacaine for brachial plexus block induced sedation that corresponds to a BIS value of 60 from which patients are easily awakened in a lucid state. In addition, perineural DEX shortened the onset time and prolonged the duration of the sensory and motor blocks.
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    ABSTRACT: Bupivacaine has been the most frequently used local anaesthetic in brachial plexus block, but ropivacaine has also been successfully tried in the recent past. It is less cardiotoxic, less arrhythmogenic, less toxic to the central nervous system than bupivacaine, and it has intrinsic vasoconstrictor property. The effects of clonidine have been studied in peripheral nerve blockade. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of clonidine on nerve blockade during brachial plexus block with ropivacaine using peripheral nerve stimulator. Sixty patients were randomly divided into two groups, Group A and B. Group A received 30 ml of 0.5% of ropivacaine with 0.5 ml normal saline while Group B received same amount of ropivacaine with 0.5 ml (equivalent to 75 μg) of clonidine for supraclavicular brachial plexus block. The groups were compared regarding quality of sensory and motor blockade, duration of post-operative analgesia and intra and post-operative complications. There was a significant increase in duration of motor and sensory block and analgesia in Group B as compared to Group A patients (P < 0.0001). There was no significant difference in onset time in either group (P = 0.304). No significant side effects were noted. The addition of 75 μg of clonidine to ropivacaine for brachial plexus block prolongs motor and sensory block and analgesia without significant side effects.
    Indian journal of anaesthesia 11/2014; 58(6):709-13. DOI:10.4103/0019-5049.147150
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of perineural dexmedetomidine on the time to onset, quality and duration of motor block with ropivacaine has been equivocal and its interaction with general anaesthesia (GA) has not been reported. We assessed the influence of dexmedetomidine added to 0.5% ropivacaine on the characteristics of supraclavicular brachial plexus block and its interaction with GA. In a randomised, double blind study, 36 patients scheduled for orthopaedic surgery on the upper limb under supraclavicular block and GA were divided into either R group (35 ml of 0.5% ropivacaine with 0.5 ml of normal saline [n - 18]) or RD group (35 mL of 0.5% ropivacaine with 50 μg dexmedetomidine [n - 18]). The onset time and duration of motor and sensory blockade were noted. The requirement of general anaesthetics was recorded. Both the groups were comparable in demographic characteristics. The time of onset of sensory block was not significantly different. The proportion of patients who achieved complete motor blockade was more in the RD group. The onset of motor block was earlier in group RD than group R (P < 0.05). The durations of analgesia, sensory and motor blockade were significantly prolonged in group RD (P < 0.00). The requirement of entropy guided anaesthetic agents was not different in both groups. The addition of dexmedetomidine to 0.5% ropivacaine improved the time of onset, quality and duration of supraclavicular brachial plexus block but did not decrease the requirement of anaesthetic agents during GA.
    Indian journal of anaesthesia 02/2015; 59(2):89-95. DOI:10.4103/0019-5049.151369


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