Retroperitoneal sclerosing PEComa with melanin pigmentation and granulomatous inflammation-A rare association within an uncommon tumor

Department of Pathology, Tata Memorial Hospital, Parel, Mumbai, India.
Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology (Impact Factor: 0.47). 07/2012; 55(3):395-8. DOI: 10.4103/0377-4929.101757
Source: PubMed


PEComa, defined as a perivascular epithelioid cell tumor, displays a wide clinicopathological spectrum. Lately, a sclerosing PEComa has been identified as its distinct variant, but with limited documentation, in view of its rarity. Herein, we describe an uncommon case of a 53-year-old lady, who was referred to us with pain abdomen. Radiological imaging disclosed a well-defined, hypodense retroperitoneal mass. The excised tumor was a round, encapsulated soft tissue mass measuring 7 cm with a tan-brown cut surface. Microscopy showed uniform, epithelioid cells with clear cytoplasm, focal melanin pigmentation and mild nuclear atypia, arranged in sheets and nests around capillary-sized vessels in a dense sclerotic stroma. Additionally, co-existing epithelioid granulomas were noted. On immunohistochemistry (IHC), tumor cells were diffusely positive for HMB45; focally for desmin and smooth muscle actin (SMA), while negative for EMA, CD10, S100-P, Melan A, CD34, AMACR and CK MNF116. This case reinforces sclerosing PEComa as an uncommon, but a distinct clinicopathological entity and exemplifies diagnostic challenge associated with it; necessitating application of IHC markers for its correct identification. Presence of melanin pigment and granulomatous inflammation in the present tumor constitute as novel histopathological findings in a sclerosing PEComa.

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    • "Sclerosing PEComa NA Slight enhancement NA Round-to-oval mass Rekhi et al, 7 2012 Retroperitoneal soft tissue (1) "
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    ABSTRACT: Perivascular epithelioid cell tumour is a relatively new entity with rising incidence. This is a rare mesenchymal neoplasm that can occur in various organs and is characterised by proliferation of perivascular cells and expression of myomelanocytic markers. Here, we present an asymptomatic 52-year-old female patient with an incidental radiological finding of a large retroperitoneal mass, histologically and immunohistochemically proven to be a sclerosing type of perivascular epithelioid cell tumour. The mass showed typical morphological and microscopic features consistent with those described in the current literature. However, it had computed tomography findings of neovascularisation and hyper-vascularity, not often documented in previous case reports of the sclerosing type of tumours. Literature review, using PubMed, of intraperitoneal / retroperitoneal type of tumours, and specifically the sclerosing type, was performed. To the best of our knowledge, less than 20 sclerosing perivascular epithelioid cell tumours have been reported and few describe the associated radiological features.
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