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The identification of fur origins from the 5300-year-old Tyrolean Iceman's accoutrement is not yet complete, although definite identification is essential for the socio-cultural context of his epoch. Neither have all potential samples been identified so far, nor there has a consensus been reached on the species identified using the classical methods. Archaeological hair often lacks analyzable hair scale patterns in microscopic analyses and polymer chain reaction (PCR)-based techniques are often inapplicable due to the lack of amplifiable ancient DNA. To overcome these drawbacks, a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) method was used exclusively based on hair keratins. Thirteen fur specimens from his accoutrement were analyzed after tryptic digest of native hair. Peptide mass fingerprints (pmfs) from ancient samples and from reference species mostly occurring in the Alpine surroundings at his lifetime were compared to each other using multidimensional scaling and binary hierarchical cluster tree analysis. Both statistical methods highly reflect spectral similarities among pmfs as close zoological relationships. While multidimensional scaling was useful to discriminate specimens on the zoological order level, binary hierarchical cluster tree reached the family or subfamily level. Additionally, the presence and/or absence of order, family and/or species-specific diagnostic masses in their pmfs allowed the identification of mammals mostly down to single species level. Red deer was found in his shoe vamp, goat in the leggings, cattle in his shoe sole and at his quiver's closing flap as well as sheep and chamois in his coat. Canid species, like grey wolf, domestic dog or European red fox, were discovered in his leggings for the first time, but could not be differentiated to species level. This is widening the spectrum of processed fur-bearing species to at least one member of the Canidae family. His fur cap was allocated to a carnivore species, but differentiation between brown bear and a canid species could not be made with certainty.
Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry 08/2012; 26(16):1735-45. DOI:10.1002/rcm.6277 · 2.64 Impact Factor
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: Carrageenan (CGN), a high molecular weight sulfated polysaccharide, is a traditional ingredient used in food industry. Its degraded forms have been identified as potential carcinogens, although the mechanism remains unclear.
: The effects of degraded λ-carrageenan (λ-dCGN) on murine RAW264.7 cells and human THP-1-derived macrophage cells were investigated by studying its actions on tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) secretion, toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression, and activation of nuclear factor-κb (NF-κB) and activation protein-1 (AP-1) pathways.
: We found that λ-dCGN was much stronger than native λ-CGN in the activation of macrophages to secrete TNF-α. Treatment of RAW264.7 cells with λ-dCGN resulted in the upregulation of TLR4, CD14 and MD-2 expressions, but did not increase the binding of LPS with macrophages. Meanwhile, λ-dCGN treatment activated NF-κB via Bcl10 and IκBα phosphorylation. In addition, λ-dCGN induced ERK1/2/MAPK and AP-1 activation. Interestingly, pretreatment of RAW264.7 cells with λ-dCGN markedly enhanced LPS-stimulated TNF-α secretion. This pretreatment resulted in the enhanced phosphorylation of ERK1/2, JNK, and intensified activation of AP-1.
: λ-dCGN induced an inflammatory reaction via both NF-κB and AP-1, and enhanced the inflammatory effect of LPS through AP-1 activation.
: The study demonstrated the role of λ-dCGN to induce the inflammatory reaction and to aggravate the effect of LPS on macrophages, suggesting that λ-dCGN produced during food processing and gastric digestion may be a safety concern.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - General Subjects 07/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.bbagen.2014.03.011 · 3.83 Impact Factor
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